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The changing face of welfareConsequences and outcomes from a citizenship perspective$
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Jorgen Goul Andersen, Anne-Marie Guillemard, Per H. Jensen, and Birgit Pfau-Effinger

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9781861345929

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781861345929.001.0001

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New forms of citizenship and social integration in European societies

New forms of citizenship and social integration in European societies

(p.189) Eleven New forms of citizenship and social integration in European societies
The changing face of welfare

Birgit Pfau-Effinger

Policy Press

This chapter discusses the change in the cultural construct of the citizen of European welfare states, which can be characterised as a shift from a notion of citizenship as passive towards a model of active citizenship. The main features of ‘active citizenship’ include autonomy, self-responsibility, flexibility, geographical mobility, a professional education, and the ability to engage in civil society to fulfil one's own interests. In the field of policies towards family and care, two different approaches to active citizenship are relevant. In the first approach, the main focus is on the integration of a higher proportion of women into waged work. The second approach is based on the promotion of informal care in the framework of the family and the introduction of a new social right to care. Both approaches have been further developed in different welfare regimes, and in part coexist within the same ones.

Keywords:   European welfare states, active citizens, social policy, family, care, women, employment

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