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Active social policies in the EUInclusion through participation?$
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Rik van Berkel and Iver Hornemann Moller

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9781861342805

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781861342805.001.0001

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The concept of activation

The concept of activation

(p.45) Three The concept of activation
Active social policies in the EU

Rik van Berkel

Iver Hornemann Møller

Policy Press

This chapter examines the development of active social policies, and elaborates upon the concept of activation. It explores the shift from passive to active social policies in the EU in general, and at the EU policy making level in particular, as a paradigm shift in which the main objective of social policies is being transformed from protection to participation. It argues that activation is not a uniform concept and distinguishes four ideal activation approaches in order to elaborate the variety of views on, and practices of, activation. It examines how the development of active social policies can be interpreted in the context of attempts of welfare states to adapt to a changing social reality. It concludes by explaining why activation emerged, and explores activation expenditures and institutional developments taking place against the background of the process of making welfare states and social policies more activating.

Keywords:   activation, active social policies, EU, policy making, welfare states, social reality, institutional developments

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