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Changing labour markets, welfare policies and citizenship$
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Jørgen Goul Andersen and Per H. Jensen

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9781861342720

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781861342720.001.0001

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Changing welfare states and labour markets in the context of European gender arrangements

Changing welfare states and labour markets in the context of European gender arrangements

(p.234) (p.235) Eleven Changing welfare states and labour markets in the context of European gender arrangements
Changing labour markets, welfare policies and citizenship

Birgit Pfau-Effinger

Policy Press

In the last decades of the millennium, women increasingly were included into the Western European labour markets; however, there were considerable differences in the development paths of European labour markets regarding the structures of labour market integration and labour market exclusion in terms of the development of labour force participation rates of women. The differences also concern the ways in which women were integrated into waged work. In most countries, it is only the part-time employment of women that has increased. This chapter discusses the changing labour markets and welfare states from the context of European gender arrangements. In this chapter, it is argued that the integration of women within the labour market is not a simple reaction to state policies. Rather, welfare state institutions are embedded in society and as a result, properties of welfare policies may be explained by central cultural values and ideals in society and the way these change, just as individuals refer to cultural values and ideals. As such, the behaviour of individuals is influenced by gender arrangements, which refer to complex mutual interrelationships between policies, cultural values and institutions. Different gender arrangements are associated with different ideals of gender inequality, of integration and of action. Discussions in this chapter include: concepts of citizenship and gender; cross-national analysis of gender policies of welfare states in the framework of gender arrangements; and analyses of changes in welfare state policies within European gender arrangements.

Keywords:   women, European labour markets, labour markets, labour market integration, labour market exclusion, labour force participation, part-time employment, changing labour markets, changing welfare states

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