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Disability and povertyA global challenge$

Arne H. Eide and Benedicte Ingstad

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9781847428851

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781847428851.001.0001

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(p.233) Index

(p.233) Index

Source:
Disability and poverty
Publisher:
Policy Press
A
‘able disabled’: China 40–1
abuse 8,
Kenya 163–4
Malawi 83
South Africa 97–98, 108, 111
see also neglect
Action Contre la Faim (Action against Hunger) 179
activism 137, 139
Adorno, Theodor 221–2
Afghanistan 210
Africa
southern 9, 55–63, 65, 67, 71, 112
sub-Saharan 62, 63, 64t
African Laughter (Lessing) 173
African National Congress (ANC) 99
‘African Policy on Disability and Development’ (A-PODD) 20, 26, 28
aid 1, 10, 15, 20, 130–1, 134, 160, 180
AIDS
Cambodia 196
Kenya 156–7, 166
northern Uganda 124, 125, 133–4
South Africa 113n3
Zimbabwe 172, 174, 177–8, 182, 185
albinism: Malawi 61, 71, 74–5, 80–3
Albright, Madeleine 218
Amin, Idi 122
amputees see landmine survivors
Associazione Volontari per il Servizio Internazionale (AVSI) 121–122, 126, 130
B
babies, neglect of: Brazil 176
Barnes, C. 56
barriers 1, 3, 5, 8, 27, 60–1, 228–30
China 34
Malawi 74, 82, 85–7
South Africa 94, 98–100, 116
Yemen 138–49
Barth, Fredrik 139
begging 5
Kenya 161
northern Uganda 132–3
Yemen 144
Benatar, S.R. 178
blindness 5
Cambodia 196
Malawi 85
Bloch, E. 172
Booth, D. 21
Botswana 6, 110, 717, 180
Bourgois, P. 95
Bourguignon, F. 3, 55, 70, 153
Braille 61, 72, 84, 87, 139
Brazil
babies, neglect of 176
Buddhism 190, 199–200
C
Cambodia 189–204, 210–11, 215
children 193–4, 196, 198, 204
education 192, 201, 204
employment 203
families 192–4, 200
gender 198, 200
healthcare 191
land ownership 193–5
landmine survivors 189–204, 218–21
malnutrition 195
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 197
mobility 191, 202
mobility devices 191
mortality rate 195–6
NGOs 190, 192–3
pensions 203
self-help groups 200–3
stigma 198, 203
Trauma Care Foundation (TCF-C) 190, 197, 200–2
Carabin, H. 106
carers 59
Ghana 139
Zimbabwe 178
children 16
Cambodia 196
China 35, 37–9
education 18
Ghana 139
(p.234) Kenya 155–65
mortality 4, 18
Yemen 144–7,
Zimbabwe 171–6, 182–6
see also babies; girls
China 31–47, 227
birth control 38
children 35, 37–9
community-based rehabilitation (CBR) 41
disability 31-47
‘able disabled’ 41
and families 35–6
policy on 37–41
drugs, prescription 44
education 32, 41, 46
eugenics 37, 38
families 32, 34–6, 38–9
Law of the PRC on the Protection of Disabled Persons 48n16
Law on Population and Birth Planning (2001) 38, 48
market economy and new welfare reform 41–4
NGOs 31, 39–41, 46
New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) 31–2, 42–4
Olympic Games (Beijing, 2008) 48n16
population policy 37–9
Regulations on Employment of People with Disabilities (2007) 48n17
rehabilitation 31–2, 37, 40–4
statistics and disability definitions 32–5
China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF) 197–4, 37, 39–41, 46
China National Rural Health Conference (2002) 42
China Rehabilitation and Research Centre 40–1
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 36, 40, 41
cholera, Zimbabwe 182
civil society organisations (CSOs) 24, 26–7
Coleridge, P. 133
combatants, former: northern Uganda 127–8
communication impairments Malawi 79t, 87
D
deafness see hearing impairments
Deng Pufang 40, 41
Deng Xiaoping 37, 39–40
Dennis, C. 139
developing countries: living conditions 55–67
southern Africa 58–65
disability
concept of 4–5, 66–7, 108
cultural beliefs/attitudes 176
Somalia 6, 139
definitions of
China 33–4
South Africa 94–5, 97–8, 100–1, 111
World Health Organization (WHO) 58
as discrimination 98–100
Malawi 73, 83, 84
and employment 5
exploitation of 5
and families see under families
grants for
Kenya 163, 164
South Africa 5, 93–7,100–12, 229
invisibility of
China 36
Kenya 153–67
medical model of 4, 57, 137
China 33–4
South Africa 98
and poverty 138–9, 153–4, 176–7, 213–14
overcoming 7–8
relationship between 56
research on 8–10
vicious circle of 1, 5–7, 23, 32, 45, 95, 130, 136, 138, 225
Cambodia 204
China 32, 44–5, 47
Kenya 133,153, 167
northern Uganda 119, 133
South Africa 95, 105
Yemen 147–8
Zimbabwe 176–7
rural
South Africa 93-117
and social inclusion 15–16
social model of 4–5, 137, 149
China 34
statistics on
China 32–5
southern Africa 57, 65
Washington Group on Disability Statistics 9
Zimbabwe 175–8
Disability Rights Movement 113n5
disability studies 137–8
disabled people's organisations (DPOs) 8, 16, 18
Kenya 155, 158, 165
South Africa 96, 97, 99, 106, 113n4
southern Africa 57, 65, 67
Uganda 26, 27, 131
diseases
Kenya 156
Zimbabwe 174
see also cholera; malaria
divorce: Yemen 142
Down's syndrome: Malawi 85
drought: Zimbabwe 179–80
drugs, prescription: China 44
(p.235) E
education 3–5, 7–8, 15, 17
Cambodia 195
China 35
and disability 16
and empowerment 8, 71
girls 7
southern Africa 59–61
South Africa 61, 73
Zimbabwe 183–4
Yemen 142, 145, 146–7
see also literacy
Eide, A.H. 7, 9, 55–7, 68n3, 71–3, 77, 82, 112, 153–4, 177, 226
emotional impairments see intellectual/emotional impairments
employment 3, 5
Cambodia 199, 203
China 32, 41, 48n11, 49n17
Kenya 154
northern Uganda 120, 121, 127–8, 130, 131
Malawi 70–1, 88
South Africa 95, 97, 99–100
sub-Saharan Africa 62, 66–7
Yemen 145–6, 148
Zimbabwe 171–2, 174, 177
empowerment 3, 7–8, 99–100, 137, 185
environment 137
sustainability 18
accessibility 18, 62, 74, 84, 86, 129, 133, 162
Yemen 148
epilepsy 5–6
Kenya 156, 163–4
South Africa 105–9, 111
Yemen 145
Zimbabwe 183
equal rights 15
Yemen 149
ethics 10–11
eugenics: China 37, 38
European Union Resolution (1996) 2
exclusion see social exclusion
F
families 6, 7, 17, 227–9
Cambodia 192–4, 197, 200
China 32, 35–6
Malawi 71, 86
South Africa 108
Yemen 137, 140, 141, 143–6
Farmer, P. 94–5, 137–9, 178
Filmer, D. 73–5, 86
Foucault, Michel 137
G
Gariyo, Z. 24
gender 18, 207, 226–7
Cambodia 198–9
and living conditions 59
Malawi 73, 77–8, 86
and marriage 7
Yemen 140–2, 147, 149
Ghana 139
girls 6-7
Kenya 163–4
Yemen 138, 140, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148–9
globalisation 2
Great Britain 56, 97
Green, L. 95
H
HIPCs (highly indebted poor countries) 20
HIV see AIDS
Haiti 138, 178
healers
Kenya 159
South Africa 107
health 3–6, 15–16, 18, 20, 22
China 31–2, 35, 38, 41–3, 49n23
Kenya 153, 155–6
Malawi 71, 74, 78
South Africa 101, 106, 110
Uganda 124–5
access to 18
risks to
Kenya 6
insurance
China 41–4
healthcare 3, 17, 25
Cambodia 190–2, 195–200, 202
China 31, 33, 36, 43–6, 48n13, 55
Kenya 153, 157–9
Malawi 71, 88
South Africa 119–20
Uganda 120, 133, 135n4
Yemen 147–9
Zimbabwe 171–7, 181, 184–5
hearing impairments
Kenya 157, 159, 162, 164
Malawi 75, 78, 82, 145
Heiberg, M. 55
Helander, B. 6, 137, 176
Howell, C. 61, 73
Hu Jintao 37
human rights 15, 19, 24, 207
China 32,
Kenya 143
South Africa 93, 98, 100, 110
Zimbabwe 176, 185
hunger
(p.236) Uganda 123-124, 132
Zimbabwe 172, 179–80
I
identity politics 207
illiteracy 26
Kenya 154
Zimbabwe 174
immunisation:
Uganda 122
Zimbabwe 174, 183
inclusion see social inclusion
income 3–5, 23–4, 62
China 33, 37, 44–6
Cambodia 193, 202–3, 208
Kenya 153–8
Malawi 71
South Africa 96–7, 102, 107, 113
India 6, 150n1
Ingstad, B. 10, 95, 112, 133, 137–8, 143, 149, 175
intellectual/emotional impairments:
Malawi 6, 75, 79t, 85
Yemen 146–7
International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) 192
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1, 20, 21
Iraq 215–17
landmine survivors 207–9
see also Kurdistan
Irish Aid 20
Islam: Yemen 140, 144–5, 149
J
Jiang Zemin 37
K
Kenya 153–67
abuse 163–4
AIDS 156–7
Association for the Physically Disabled of Kenya (APDK) 161–2
barriers 157, 158–66
begging 161
care 158
children 156, 157, 164–5
disability
context of 155–6
grants 163
issues 156–8
disabled people's organisations (DPOs) 155, 158, 165
diseases 156
education 157–8, 161–2, 164–5
Educational Assessment and Resource Services (EARS) 158
families 162–4, 166–7
girls 164
health risks 6
health services 158–60
hearing impairments 157, 162
mental impairment 164
mobility devices 160
National Council for Persons with Disability 158
neglect 163
neurological impairments 156
Persons with Disabilities Act (2004) 158
polio survivors 157, 160
poverty and disability interrelationship 153–4
pregnancy 156, 157
sanitation 162
sponsors 164–5
stigma 163
unemployment 157
United Disabled Persons of Kenya (UDPK) 197n2
visual impairments 166
women 156, 157
Kleinman, A. 94, 95, 101, 111, 138, 149, 178, 229
Kohrman, M. 33–4, 39, 40, 41, 95, 133
Kurdistan 211, 216, 222n5
L
The Lancet 217–18
landmines 6
Mine Ban Convention (1997) 192–3
leprosy survivors: northern Uganda 120, 130, 133
Lessing, Doris: African Laughter 173
literacy 16
Malawi 74
southern Africa 59, 60
Zimbabwe 174
Liu, Y. 42
Loeb, M.E. 5, 9, 56–8, 68n3, 69, 71–3, 77, 153–4, 164, 226
M
(p.237) McDowell, C. 178
MacGregor, H. 101
Malaria 18
Cambodia 195
Kenya 156
Malawi 85
Zimbabwe 173–4, 183, 185
Malawi 71–89, 227
abuse 83
Albinism in Malawi Study (2004) 74–5, 80–2
Braille 84
communication impairments 79t, 87
Constitution 22
disability policy 72
discrimination 73–4, 82–5, 87–9
Down's syndrome 85
education 71, 72–82, 84–9
Federation of Disability Organisations in Malawi (FEDOMA) 23, 73, 75
gender 73, 77–8, 86
Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) 197
Growth and Economic Strategy (MGES) 197–3
hearing impairments 75, 78, 79t, 82, 85
intellectual/emotional impairments 79t, 85
living conditions 56, 58t, 59t, 60, 61t, 62t, 63, 64t
Living Conditions Survey (2003/04) 73–4, 75–80, 86, 88
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 72
National Economic Council 86
physical impairments 78, 79t, 87
poverty 71–2, 76, 82, 84–6, 88–9
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) 197–3
sanitation 62, 76t, 84
sign language 83
stigma 73, 87
‘Vision 2020’ 22, 72
visual impairments 79t, 80, 84, 85
Women and Living Conditions Study (2006) 197, 82–5
Malawi Council for the Handicapped
(MACOHA) 22
Malnutrition 4, 6, 8
Cambodia 195
Kenya 153, 156
South Africa 106
Yemen 138
Zimbabwe 172, 174, 177, 180, 182–3, 185
Mandela, Nelson 102, 114n9
Mann, Horace 71
Mao Zedong 38
marriage 6–7
Uganda 131
Yemen 7, 141–3, 149
Zimbabwe 184
medicalisation process 101
mental impairment: Kenya 164
Mercer, G. 56
Mine Ban Convention (1997) 192–3
mines see landmines
mobility 8, 134
Cambodia 191–2, 202, 203
China 36
Malawi 72–3
South Africa 100
Zimbabwe 184
mobility devices 134
Cambodia 191
Kenya 160
Malawi 72
see also wheelchairs
mortality rates
Cambodia 195–6
Zimbabwe 174, 182, 183
Mutasa, Didymus 179, 181
N
NGOs (nongovernmental organisations) 8, 17, 22, 24–6, 222n1
Cambodia 190, 192–3
China 31, 39–41, 46
Kenya 167
Uganda 119, 123, 126–7, 130, 131, 133
Yemen 149
Zimbabwe 179, 183, 185
Namibia 56, 58t, 59t, 60, 61t, 62, 63, 64t
Nattrass, N. 97
Neglect 17
Brazil 176
Kenya 163
Yemen 137
see also abuse
neurological impairments:
Kenya 156
Zimbabwe 176
Norway 56, 192, 211
Norwegian Federation of Organisations of Disabled People (FFO) 56, 73
Nyati, K. 172
O
Obote, Milton 122
Olympic Games (Beijing, 2008) 48n16
Øvensen, G. 55
P
PRC see China
Pact Omega 131
pain: landmine survivors 216–17
‘Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness’ 20
(p.238) partnership, global 18
peer families: Kenya 165
pensions: Cambodia 203
personhood:
Uganda 128–30, 134
South Africa 94
physical impairments: Malawi 79t
polio survivors
Kenya 157, 160
northern Uganda 120–1, 130
poverty
absolute 3–4
Cambodia 204
Kenya 167
Malawi 71
Uganda 119, 133
South Africa 105
Zimbabwe 177
and apartheid 95
causes of 3, 31, 94–5, 154, 177
definitions of 135n4, 176
and disability 7–8, 138–9, 153–4, 213–14
research on 8–10
vicious circle of 5–7, 225–7
Cambodia 204
China 32, 34, 44–5, 47
Kenya 133, 153, 164, 167
Uganda 109, 119, 130, 133, 138
South Africa 95, 105
Yemen 138, 147–8
Zimbabwe 176–7
and displacement
epilepsy 105–6
Kenya 155–6, 161
and living conditions compared 55
Malawi 76
overall 3, 4, 71
and mobility
northern Uganda 121–2, 133
policies 19–21
relative 4
rural
Cambodia 191, 195, 196–7, 201
China 31–2, 43, 45
Kenya 155, 166
northern Uganda 123
Yemen 147
Zimbabwe 184
Sen's definition of 112n1
as trauma 207–22
Zimbabwe 171–2
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) 15, 19, 20
Malawi 21–23, 28
Thematic Working Groups (TWGs) 21–2
Uganda 23–8
pregnancy
Kenya 156, 157, 164
Zimbabwe 182, 183
Pritchett, L.H. 74, 75
R
Rao, K. 42
rehabilitation 1, 10, 138, 207, 217, 227
Cambodia 192, 204
China 41
Kenya 160, 167
Yemen 143, 147
Zimbabwe 175, 184–5
religion 7 see also Buddhism; Islam
Yemen 140, 144, 149
Zimbabwe 176
S
sanitation 4, 25
Kenya 162
Malawi 62, 76t, 84
Uganda 123, 128–30
Zimbabwe 174, 177, 181–2
Save the Children UK 184
Scheper-Hughes, N. 95, 176
security 3, 5, 7, 8, 24
China 46
Kenya 143
Uganda 119, 135
Zimbabwe 176
Segar, J. 106
self-help groups: Cambodia 200–3
Sen, Amartya 112n1
Shakespeare, T. 4, 5
sign langagues
Malawi 83, 87
Yemen 145
SINTEF Health Research 56, 73
social exclusion 3, 71, 154
social inclusion 15–16, 20, 38, 85–6, 88
social suffering 10, 137, 229
South Africa 94, 95, 101, 105
Yemen 149
Zimbabwe 171, 178, 185–6
Somalia 6
South Africa 93–112, 227, 229
AIDS 113n3
apartheid 93, 111
Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment Act (2003) 99
Comprehensive Social Security System 94, 96, 97, 106, 107
disability
(p.239) definitions of 94–5
as discrimination 98–100
post-apartheid 96–8
rural 100–1
disability grants 5, 93, 95–7, 96, 102, 104–5, 106, 107, 109, 110–13, 229
Disabled Children Action Group (DICAG) 197, 99, 109–10, 114
disabled people's organisations (DPOs) 97, 99, 106
Disabled People South Africa (DPSA) 96, 99, 113n4
education 61, 73
employment 99–100
Employment Equity Act (1998) 99
epilepsy 105–9, 111
healers 107
poverty 95, 109–10
social suffering 94, 95, 101
structural violence 94–5
unemployment 108
South Africa Human Sciences Research Council 97
Southern Africa Federation of the Disabled (SAFOD) 56
Stahl, Lesley 218
stakeholder workshops 57
starvation see malnutrition
stigma 6, 18
Cambodia 198, 203
Kenya 156, 163
Malawi 73, 87
Uganda 128, 130
Yemen 137
Stone, E. 47n7
structural violence 10, 229
South Africa 94–5
Yemen 137, 138–9, 148, 149
Zimbabwe 178, 185–6
Summerfield, Derek 213
T
taenia solium cysticerosis 106
Talle, A. 176
Trauma Care Foundation (TCF) 190, 208
trauma care providers: testimonies 211–22
Tremmel, M. 173
Tromsø Mine Victim Resource Centre (TMC) 200
Tutu, Desmond 102
U
UN Development Programme (UNDP) 16
Uganda 227
disability policies 134
language barrier 27
legislation 25–6
MFPED (Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development) 24
Ministry of Gender, Labour, and Social Development (MGLSD) 26
National Development Plan (NDP) 26
National Resistance Movement (NRM) 122
National Union of Disabled Persons of Uganda (NUDIPU) 25, 26, 27
NUDIPU (National Union of Disabled Persons of Uganda) 26, 27
Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) 197–5, 26, 27
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) 197–7
Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Project (UPPAP) 25
Uganda, northern
AIDS 125
begging 132
clothing 127
combatants, former 127–8
disabled people's organisations (DPOs) 26, 27, 131
employment 120, 121, 127–8, 130, 131
families, support of 120–1
internally displaced persons (IDPs) 119–34
food provision 120–1, 124, 125, 132, 133
forced urban life 131–3
inappropriate planning 125–6
mobility constraints 120–1, 123–5, 126–8
poverty 122–5
sanitation 128–30
stigma and aid policy 130
Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) 119
National Household Survey 123
Northern Uganda Reconstruction Project (NURP) 123
Northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF) 123
polio survivors 120–1, 130
war 119
Ugandan Debt Network (UDN) 24
UNAIDS Report on the global AIDS epidemic 172
unemployment
Kenya 154, 157
South Africa 106, 108
sub-Saharan Africa 62, 66
Zimbabwe 161, 172, 174
UNESCO 16
Unicef 16
United Kingdom see Great Britain
United Nations (UN)
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) 1, 2, 15, 16, 48n17, 56, 67, 98
Convention on the Rights of the Child 183
Decade for Disabled Persons (1983–92) 39
Development Programme
(p.240) definition of poverty 176
World Development Report 2000/01: Attacking poverty 3
World Development Report (2005) 140
estimate on poverty and disability 177
International Year of the Disabled People (1981) 39
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 197–2, 17–19, 28, 228
Cambodia 197
Malawi 72
Zimbabwe 182, 185
The Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities for People with Disabilities 2, 56, 66
World Programme of Action concerning disabled persons 2, 56
World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995) 3–4, 71
United States 56
V
violence see structural violence
visual impairments
Kenya 162, 166
Malawi 75, 79t, 80, 81, 84, 85
Uganda 126, 130, 132, 134
W
war 7, 126, 210
Cambodia 196, 215
Gulf War 144
northern Uganda 119
Washington City Group on Disability Statistics 9, 58
Werner, David 113n5
wheelchairs
Kenya 160
Malawi 73, 84
Uganda 121, 122, 125, 126–7, 132
Yemen 7, 139, 141–2, 144
Whyte, S.R. 10, 95
Wolfensohn, J.D. 4, 17, 71
women
and equality 16, 18
Kenya 156, 157
Malawi 75, 82, 84–5
and maternal health 18
and religion 7
Yemen 140, 141, 142
Zimbabwe 180, 181, 182
working conditions, dangerous 6
World Bank 1, 2, 19, 21, 154
Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) 20
World Food Programme (WFP): northern Uganda 124, 132
World Health Organization (WHO)
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) 4–5, 9, 16, 57–8, 78, 98, 225–6, 228, 229
International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps 57, 225
resolution on disability 2
Y
Yemen 137–50
barriers 139–48, 149
begging 144
blindness 143–4, 145
children 144–5
education 142, 145, 146–7
employment 145–6
environment 148
epilepsy 145
equal rights 149
families 140, 141, 143–4, 146–7
gender 141–2, 147, 149
girls 140, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148–9
healthcare and rehabilitation services 147–8, 149
marriage 7, 141–2, 148
polio survivors 147
religion 7, 144–5, 149
sign language 145
social suffering 149
structural violence 137, 138–9, 148, 149
women 140, 141, 142
Yeo, R. 1,2, 5, 154, 177, 225
Z
Zambia 56, 58, 59t, 60, 61t, 62t, 63t, 64t
Zhang Haidi 48n15
Zimbabwe 171–86
AIDS 172, 178
Basic Education Assistance Module (BEAM) 197
carers 178
children 175, 176, 182, 183
disability, consequences of poverty on 176–7
diseases 174
cholera 35, 37–9, 182
malaria 174, 183
drought 179–80
Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP) 171
education 183–4
Enhanced Social Protection Project (ESPP) 197
epilepsy 183
families 176, 177, 180
healthcare 174–5, 182–3
hunger 179–81
illiteracy 174
Jairos Jiri Association 60
living conditions 56, 58t, 59t, 60, 61t, 62, 63, 64t, 65
(p.241) malnutrition 174, 180
marriage 184
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 197, 185
mortality rate 174, 182, 183
NGOs 179, 185
poverty
PASS programme 171
and politics 171–2, 185
pregnancy 182, 183
sanitation 181
social suffering 10
structural violence 178, 185–6
Tonga people
beliefs and attitudes 175–6
education 183–4
food and elections 179–81
healthcare 182–3
histories 173–5
social suffering 178, 185–6
water provision 181–2
women 180, 181, 182
water provision 181–2 see also sanitation