Across Europe and beyond, the promotion of media literacy for both children and adults has acquired an important public urgency. Citizens need to be media literate; it is claimed, to enable them to cope more effectively with the flood of information in today's highly mediated societies. As teachers, politicians, and policy makers everywhere struggle with this rapid shift in media culture, greater responsibility is placed on citizens for their own welfare in the new-media environment. This chapter focuses on how media literacy might be achieved. First, it examines how media literacy has been defined, with particular reference to the growing importance of digital literacy. Second, the chapter examines how media literacy has been adopted within policy frameworks as a response to rapid technological change. Third, the chapter critiques the ‘technological literacy’ that dominates much of the current policy agenda, and argues for a new approach based on better knowledge about children and young people's media and internet habits.
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