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The Idea of Civilization and the Making of the Global Order$
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Andrew Linklater

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781529213874

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: May 2021

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781529213874.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM POLICY PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.policypress.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Policy Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in PPSO for personal use.date: 16 September 2021

Civilization, Diplomacy and the Enlargement of International Society

Civilization, Diplomacy and the Enlargement of International Society

(p.151) 5 Civilization, Diplomacy and the Enlargement of International Society
The Idea of Civilization and the Making of the Global Order

Andrew Linklater

Policy Press

This chapter explains how civilized standards were globalized as a result of the mimetic behaviour of non-European regimes. Top- down civilizing offensives in China, Japan, Siam, Russia and the Ottoman empire/Turkish Republic are examined to explore dominant patterns of change in the global order. Modernizing regimes set out to reform state structures in the light of European conceptions of civilization. They altered traditional diplomatic mores in order to comply with European conventions. Some engaged in mimetic colonialism to demonstrate their civilized credentials and to press claims to be admitted into international society as equal sovereign powers. The overall pattern of change illustrates Elias’s thesis about how established groups seek to persuade outsiders to internalise feelings of inferiority and to modify behaviour accordingly. As Elias recognised, European notions of civilization spread outward to non-European elites but new social arrangements appeared in the process. The chapter discusses the development of novel combinations of nation and civilization that laid the foundation for challenges to the European global order which accelerated from the middle of the twentieth century.

Keywords:   Expansion of international society, East and Southeast Asia, Russia, Ottoman empire

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