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ASEAN Resistance to Sovereignty ViolationInterests, Balancing and the Role of the Vanguard State$

Laura Southgate

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781529202205

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: January 2020

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781529202205.001.0001

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(p.263) Index

(p.263) Index

Source:
ASEAN Resistance to Sovereignty Violation
Publisher:
Policy Press
A
Aceh 45, 129
Acharya, Amitav 3–4, 5–6, 58, 103, 150, 194, 214, 215, 226–7
actor, ASEAN as 16–17, 102, 224
AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area) 55
Alatas, Ali 48, 124, 125, 133, 135
alliances 2, 15, 71, 72, 77, 78, 102, 219, 222
Aneja, Urvashi 6
Annan, Kofi 136
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) 125, 130, 135, 140, 142, 181, 188, 189
Apodeti (Timorese Popular Democratic Association) 28, 29, 31, 46, 47
Aquino III, Benigno 176, 178, 180, 181
arbitration tribunals 176–7
ARF (ASEAN Regional Forum) xiv, 6, 172, 194, 195, 215, 227
Armacost, Michael 51
arms supplies
East Timor invasion 30, 32–3
to Indonesia 50–1, 121, 141
to the Philippines 185
to Thailand 92, 95
to Vietnam 181
ASA (Association of Southeast Asia) xi, xii
ASEAN Summits 181–2, 184, 186, 189
ASEAN Way xiii, xv, 58, 151
ASEAN-China Free Trade Area 170
Asia- Pacific Conference on East Timor 125
Asian financial crisis (1997) xv, 117, 118, 126–9, 130, 148–9, 153, 220, 222
Asian Strategy and Leadership Institute 189
Asia-Pacific Coalition for East Timor (APCET) 124
Australia
air bases 92
and ASEAN 152
East Timor humanitarian crisis 117, 120, 140–5, 147, 220, 222
East Timor invasion 25, 26, 30, 33, 46, 57, 224
seabed border agreements 31, 39
South China Sea Dispute 190, 193
autonomy
constructivist theory xvii, 1, 2, 6, 103, 194, 214, 215
East Timor humanitarian crisis 117, 118, 131, 132–6, 149–50
and power 16
realist theory xvii, 7, 194–5, 215–18, 221
South China Sea Dispute 163
and sovereignty 19
Third Indochina War 102–3, 105
vanguard state theory 222–3
B
Ba, Alice 4, 58, 103, 150, 193, 194, 214
Baba, Ghafar 78
Baja Jr, Lauro 168
BAKIN Badan Koordinasi Intelijens Negara (State Intelligence Coordinating Body) 33
Balakrishnan, Vivian 190
balance of power politics 6–7, 15, 105, 167, 180, 192, 222, 223
Bali Summit (1976) 55
Balibó Declaration 47–8
Bangkok Declaration (1967) xiii, xv
Barry, Robert 121, 147
Beeson, Mark 192
Bellamy, Alex J. 226–7
Belo, Carlos Felipe Ximenes 120, 124, 129
Betts, Alexander 4–5, 6 (p.264)
Bian Kie, Lim 43, 54
bilateral agreements 15, 122, 169, 180, 184, 188
Blair, Dennis 140
Boren, David 121
boycotts 55, 141, 223–4
British colonialism xii
Brown, Harold 75, 88
Brunei xi, 46, 55, 60, 163, 193
Brzezinski, Zbigniew 75, 93
C
Cambodia
Cambodia conflict (Third Indochina War) 2, 71–116, 214–15, 216, 219, 222, 224
and China 77, 84, 98, 174, 184
communism 27, 73
critical theoretical scholarship 219
and Indonesia 98–100, 135
joining ASEAN xi, xiv, 225
South China Sea Dispute 174, 184
and Thailand 3, 82–3
and Vietnam 73–4, 84–5, 86–7
Capie, David 227
capitalist social order 105, 106
Carter, Ashton 179
Carter, Jimmy 51–2, 71, 87–8, 93, 95
case study methodology 17–20, 213
Cayetano, Alan Peter 187
Charunphan Isarangkun Na Ayuthaya 77
Chatchai Chunawan 77, 78, 79
China
alliances with 2
and ASEAN xiv, 2, 81–3, 90–1, 94, 170, 194, 215, 217, 220
and Cambodia 77, 84, 98, 174, 184
Cold War xii
East Timor 30, 45, 50
as extra-regional power 6–7
and Indonesia 37, 81–2, 128
and the Khmer Rouge 84
and the Philippines 81, 167–8, 173, 176–92, 223
South China Sea Dispute 163–211
and the Soviet Union 75, 80, 81, 87, 100–1
and Thailand 71, 81, 82, 85, 91, 93, 94, 95, 99, 217
Third Indochina War 7, 71, 103–4, 216, 219, 222
and the UN 96
and the US 75, 81, 166, 171–2, 175, 178–9, 188–9, 192, 193, 216, 224
US-Indonesian Consultative Commission 37
China-Vietnamese Border War of 1979 72
civil war 31–3, 43, 86
Clinton, Bill 121, 122, 131, 140, 142, 224
Clinton, Hillary 172
coalitions of the willing 142
code of conduct 168–70, 189–90
coercive power dynamics 2, 15–16, 118, 147–8, 152, 170–1, 188, 190, 223–4
cohesion norms xx, 17, 44–7, 214–15
East Timor humanitarian crisis 118, 134–5, 151
East Timor invasion 44–7
South China Sea Dispute 164, 178
Third Indochina War 90–1, 102–6
Cold War
and ASEAN’s origins xi–xiv
Australia 38
East Timor 25–70
Indonesia 27–31
colonial era xii
Comecon 85
common threat consensus 76, 224
Commonwealth 46
communism
Cambodia 83–4
East Timor invasion 27, 32, 34, 35, 59–60
fears over expansion of xii, 29–30, 59–60
Indonesia 81
Vietnam 29–30, 73, 85
Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) 83
Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) 85
conflict avoidance 7, 104, 216
consensus-based decision making xiii, xv, 2, 7, 9, 16, 77, 103–4, 151, 164, 216
constructive realism 11
constructivist scholarship xvii, 1–6, 11, 214–15
East Timor humanitarian crisis 150
East Timor invasion 58
South China Sea Dispute 193–4
Third Indochina War 103
containment policies 2, 82, 85
cooperative norms 2, 9, 13–14
Cotton, James 30
counterinsurgency 51, 52, 92
covariation 18
Crawford, Timothy 13, 15, 102, 221 (p.265)
critical theoretical scholarship xvii, 8–10, 59, 105–6, 152–3, 218–20
D
Dai Bingguo 172
De Castro, Cruz 173, 183, 191–2
de Venecia, Jose 125
Declaration of the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) 169–70, 174, 191
Declaration of the Formation of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK) 98
decolonization 25, 28–9, 35, 49, 59, 218
Democratic Kampuchea 74, 82, 86, 87, 96
Deng Xiaoping 71, 75, 81, 82, 85, 87–8, 93, 94, 95, 96
Dibb, Paul 133
Dili coup, East Timor 32–3, 41, 123
Dim Syamsudin 128
diplomacy
large power diplomacy 5, 95, 96–101
South China Sea Dispute 173, 176, 180, 194
Third Indochina War 79, 82, 85, 89
vanguard state theory 15, 223
disinformation 32
do Amaral, Xavier 50
domino effect 34, 79, 93, 95, 128
Downer, Alexander 132, 133, 134, 142
Drummond, Catherine 227
Dunn, James 42, 48
Dutch colonialism xii
Duterte, Rodrigo 182–4, 185–6, 187, 188, 190, 191, 192
E
East Asia Summit (EAS) 170, 188, 189
East Timor
constructivist scholarship 58, 150
humanitarian crisis 117–62, 215, 217, 219–20, 222–3
invasion 2, 25–70, 214, 216, 218
realist theory 59, 151–2
selection as a case study 18, 19
vanguard state theory 221–2
economic aid
to Cambodia 84, 184
to Indonesia 34–5, 142, 149, 220
as strategy by external powers 224
to Vietnam 85, 101
Elman, Colin 11
empirical evidence base 18
Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) 179–80
European Union 125–6, 141
Evans, Gareth 122
expansionist aims
China 81, 164, 166, 171, 174, 176, 188, 189, 191
Indonesia 30–1, 57, 60, 216, 218
Soviet Union 34, 72, 75, 76, 80, 84
Vietnam xiv, 78, 83, 84, 93, 105–6, 222
F
FALINTIL (National Liberation Armed Forces of East Timor) 33, 48, 119, 138
Federation of Malaysia xii
Five-Power Agreement 46
food shortages 127–8
forced resettlements 45, 84
Ford, Gerald 34, 37–8, 50–1, 219
Foreign Ministers (ASEAN) 89, 97, 98, 145, 169, 184, 186, 190
Fraser, Don 51
Fraser, Malcolm 42–4, 52, 54
Freedom of Navigation (FON) operations 179
free-trade agreements 128, 170, 175, 188
French colonialism xii
FRETILIN (Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor) 28–34, 41, 45, 47–50, 52–3, 56, 60, 119, 216
Frey, Frederick 17
FUNSK (Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation) 86, 87
G
Gerard, Kelly 8
Glas, Aarie 2–3
Goh Chok Tong 135, 143
Gorbachev, Mikhail 100
Grieco, Joseph 10, 11
Gruber, Lloyd 3
GRUNK (Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea) 74
guerrilla warfare 48, 52, 81, 93
Gupta, Sourabh 189
H
Haacke, Jürgen 4, 58, 104, 150–1, 193, 194, 214
Habib, Philip 36, 45, 51, 76
Habibie, Bacharuddin Jusuf 129, 130–1, 132, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138, 139, 141–2, 144, 145, 147
habits of peace 2–3 (p.266)
Handel, Michael 13
Hayton, Bill 166, 186
hegemonic power 31, 72, 75, 81, 102
Heng Samrin 86, 87, 96, 97
Heydarian, Richard Javad 192
history of ASEAN xi–xx, 44
Hong Kong 130
Hong Lei 177
Hor Nam Hong 174
Howard, John 131, 133–4, 137, 139, 141, 143, 144
Howard Doctrine 143, 144
Hua, Huang 75, 93, 95
human rights
Cambodia 96
conference 124
contraventions in East Timor 48, 52
East Timor 118, 120, 121, 131
and the future of ASEAN 225–8
Philippines 183
humanitarian crisis, East Timor 117–62
humanitarian principles, shift towards 225–8
Hun Sen 184
I
identity, and the making of security communities 3–4
India 193, 195, 225
Indochinese Federation 73, 87
Indonesia
and ASEAN 16, 123–6, 134–5
Asian financial crisis (1997) 118, 127–9
British colonialism xii
and Cambodia 98–100, 135
and China 37, 81–2, 128
Cold War 27–31
communism 81
Dutch colonialism xii
East Timor humanitarian crisis 117–62, 222
East Timor invasion 7, 25–70, 216, 218, 221–2
expansionist aims 30–1, 57, 60, 216, 218
integration into the region xiv
and INTERFET 144–5
joining ASEAN xi
and Malaysia xiii, 44, 46, 58–9, 125
post-Cold War 119–21
readying for war 92
and Singapore xiii, 55, 135
small annexations 45
and Thailand xiii, 95, 124–5
and the US 27, 31, 34–8, 48–54, 76, 118, 119, 121, 126, 129–31, 147–9
as vanguard state 25–6, 33–44, 57, 117–18, 148, 221–2, 223, 224
and Vietnam 76–7, 78, 90, 99
Indo-Pacific Business Forum 188
informal alliances 71, 72, 78, 219, 222
informal decision-making xiii, 2
institutionalization processes 5
institutions
ASEAN institutional cohesion 44–7, 134–5
as venues for cooperation 2
Westphalian model of sovereignty 12, 16, 225, 227–8
intelligence gathering 15, 32, 138
interest convergence
East Timor humanitarian crisis 118, 121–6
East Timor invasion 26, 57, 60
as independent variable 11–15
partial interest convergence xx, 13–14, 19, 164, 174–82, 192
South China Sea Dispute 164–5, 166–74, 191–3
Third Indochina War 71, 102
and vanguard state theory 221–3, 224
INTERFET (International Force for East Timor) 142–3, 144–5, 146–8, 150–1, 152, 220, 222
International Conference on Kampuchea 96–7
international law 49, 57, 179, 181
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 127, 128, 130, 132, 142, 220
International Relations 8, 213
International Stabilisation Forces (ISF) 146
intra-ASEAN power dynamics 16, 76–9, 90–2, 191
J
Jakarta Informal Meetings(JIM) 99–100
Japan xii, 78, 130, 144, 175, 190, 193, 195, 225
Job, Brian L. 6
Joint Communiqués 56, 57, 77, 145, 174, 184, 194, 216
Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking (JMSU) 170, 173
Joint Vision Statements 180–1
Jones, David M 6–7, 13, 58, 59, 104–5, 151–2, 194–5, 216, 217
Jones, Lee 8, 9, 10, 59–60, 105, 152–3, 218–20 (p.267)
journalists 119, 120
Juddery, Bruce 41
K
Kaplan, Robert D 166, 189
Keating, Paul 122
Khieu Samphan 97, 98, 99
Khmer Rouge 27, 71, 74, 83, 84–5, 86, 93, 94, 97, 98, 99, 222
Khoo, Nicholas 2, 194
Khukrit Pramot 79
Kiernan, Ben 30, 48
Kingsbury, Damien 120
Kissinger, Henry 34, 36, 37, 45, 50–1, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82
Koh, Tommy 188–9
Konfrontasi xiii, 44
Kopassus military units 122–3, 132
Kopsak Chutikul 135
KPNLF (Khmer People’s National Liberation Front) 97, 99
Krasner, Stephen 12, 16, 147–8
Kriangsak Chamanan 85, 91, 93
Kuala Lumpur Declaration 80
Kuantan principle 98–9
L
Lao People’s Democratic Republic 100
Laos
and China 77
communism 27, 73
joining ASEAN xi, xiv, 225
and Vietnam 73
Larson, Charles 168
Le Hai Binh 177
Le Thi Thu Hang 187
Lee Hsien Loong 182, 189
Lee Kuan Yew xi, 46, 56, 78, 79, 81, 82, 143
Leekpai, Chuan 125
Leifer, Michael xiv, 6, 7, 13, 28, 58, 59, 104–5, 151, 167, 194–5, 215–16, 217, 219
liberation movements 86
Lim Bian Kie 43, 54
Lim King Siang 144
localized sovereignty 227
Lon Nol, General 73–4
M
Macau 30
Mahathir, Prime Minister 143–4, 145, 227
Malaya xii
Malaysia
Asian financial crisis (1997) 130
and Brunei 46
and China 81, 92, 168
East Timor humanitarian crisis 143–4, 145
East Timor invasion 45–7, 56, 60
formation of Federation xii
and Indonesia xiii, 44, 46, 58–9, 125
joining ASEAN xi
readying for war 92
South China Sea Dispute 163, 165, 169, 193
and the Soviet Union 80
and Thailand 95
Third Indochina War 89
and the US 76
and Vietnam 76, 78, 99
Malik, Adam 28, 33, 36, 47, 53, 76
Manglapus, Raul 124
Mann, Michael 16
Mansfield, Edward D. 3
Marcos, President 79
massacres 48, 84, 119–20, 136
materialist state theory 8
Mattis, Jim 185, 187
McCredie, John 30, 39
Mearsheimer, John 4, 13
Mekong hydroelectic scheme 79
Merom, Gil 10, 11
military aid
in Cambodia 84, 98
East Timor invasion 34–5, 36, 37, 50–1, 52
to Indonesia 121, 122–3
to the Philippines 193
to Thailand 92, 94–5
to Vietnam 71, 73, 84, 85, 101
Vietnam War 76 see also arms supplies
military bases 39, 76, 79, 180, 186
military coups
Cambodia 73–4, 86
East Timor 32, 41
Indonesia 27
militia violence 137–9, 143
Mill, John Stuart 226
Ministerial Meetings 56–7, 77, 89, 173–4, 216
Mischief Reef 163, 166, 174
Moerdani, General 30, 43
Mondale, Walter 52, 94, 95
Morgenthau, Hans 12–13
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) 45
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick 50
multilateral initiatives 170, 175, 178, 184, 188–9, 193, 194, 215
multinational companies 170–1
multinational forces 139–40, 142, 145
Murdani, General 36 (p.268)
Murtopo, General Ali 32, 41, 54
Myanmar xi, xiv, 225
N
Narine, Shaun xii
National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Co-operative Cambodia 97, 99
neorealism 4, 8, 10, 11
neo-Weberian views of the state 8
New Zealand 25, 78
Newsom, US Ambassador 36, 51
Ngo Xuan Lich 187
NGOs (non-governmental organisations) 125
Ninth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting in Manila (1976) 56, 57
Nixon, Richard 38, 75
non-interference principle
critical theoretical scholarship 8, 152–3
East Timor humanitarian crisis 150, 215
East Timor invasion 58, 214
and humanitarian principles 226
realist theory 151
South China Sea Dispute 195–6
and sovereignty xvi, 2, 3, 16, 227
technology of power mechanisms 218
Third Indochina War 102–6
non-statist approaches xvii, 218, 220
norms, as independent variables 3–6, 58, 214
North Korea 188
Norway 86, 124
O
Oakley, Robert 52
Obama, Barack 164, 171–2, 175, 178, 180–2, 185, 187
Oh Ei Sun 189
oil/gas reserves 31, 39, 46, 57, 120, 165–6, 170, 186, 187
Operasi Komodo 32
Orchard, Phil 4–5
P
Pacific War xii
Panetta, Leon 175
Panggabean, General Maraden 78
Paracel Islands 163, 165, 171, 185–6
Paris Peace negotiations 76
partial interest convergence xx, 13–14, 19, 164, 174–82, 192
Patani United Liberation Organization (PULO) 45
Pathet Lao 27
peacekeeping 97, 117, 118, 137, 139, 140, 141–2, 146–8, 149
Peacock, Andrew 42–3, 53–4
Pell, Claiborne 121
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) 88, 93
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 176–7, 183–4
Pham Van Dong 79, 87
Phan Hien 79–80
Phay Siphan 184
Philippines
and China 81, 167–8, 173, 176–92, 223
and East Timor 45, 145, 153
independence movements 45
and Indonesia xiii, 124, 135, 153
intra-ASEAN power dynamics 16
and Japan 193
joining ASEAN xi
readying for war 92
South China Sea Dispute 163–211
and the Soviet Union 80
as vanguard state 164, 181, 191–3, 223, 224
and Vietnam 77, 79, 90, 181
Pol Pot 74, 83–4, 85, 86, 91, 96
Pompeo, Mike 188
Portugal 28, 32, 33, 47, 49, 86, 123, 136
power
and autonomy 16
balance of power politics 6–7, 15, 105, 167, 180, 192, 222, 223
coercive power dynamics 2, 15–16, 118, 147–8, 152, 170–1, 188, 190, 223–4
countervailing power 95
hegemonic power 31, 72, 75, 81, 102
and institutions 3
intra-ASEAN power dynamics 16, 76–9, 90–2, 191
mutually reinforced by cooperation 3
relative power 15
and sovereignty 16
technology of power mechanisms 8, 218
power-maximizing behaviour 15, 57
Prasong Soonsiri 125
Prem Tinsulanond 94, 99
Press, Daryl 13, 15, 102, 221
Priess, David 3
process-tracing methodology 18
propaganda 32, 47, 56
protests 128, 129, 171
(p.269) Q
Quang, President 181
R
Ramos, Fidel 124
Ramos-Horta, José 31, 49, 120, 124, 125
Razak, Tun 46, 47
realist theory xvii, xviii, 3, 6–7, 9, 10–11, 12, 15, 213, 215–18
East Timor humanitarian crisis 151–2
East Timor invasion 59
South China Sea Dispute 194–5
Third Indochina War 102, 104–6
refugees 79, 91, 92, 96
regional autonomy, norm of xvii, 2, 6, 19, 103, 105, 149, 150, 194, 195, 215
‘regional solutions for regional problems’ 6, 100, 150, 194–5, 216
relative power 15
responsibility to protect (R2P) xx, 225–8
retrenchment policies xiii, 26, 58, 75, 76, 81, 83, 219
Reyes, Angelo 168
Rithauddeen, Tengku Ahmad 89–90
Rüland, Jürgen 16
Russia 182, 185 see also Soviet Union
S
Sabah xii
Santa Cruz massacre 120, 123, 129, 141
Sarawak xii
Sary, Ieng 82, 86, 91
Scarborough Shoal 173, 174, 176, 177, 179, 183
Schlesinger, James 81
Schweller, Randall 3
seabed border agreements 31, 39
SEANET (Southeast Asian Human Rights Network) 124–5
SEANWFZ (Southeast Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone) 169
secessionism 45
secondary interests 13
security concerns
about China 85
after invasion of Cambodia 92
Australian 38
critical theoretical scholarship 219
in East Timor 29
as reason for establishment of ASEAN xiii, xv
Third Indochina War 106, 214–15
Vietnam 85
security-maximizing behaviour 15
See Seng Tan 226
self-defence 50, 88
self-determination 26, 35, 40, 41, 49, 53, 122, 132, 134, 144, 149
self-help principle 15
Severino Jr, Rodolfo 134, 227
Sheridan, Greg 123
Shesterinina, Anastasia 6
Sihanouk, Prince 74, 83, 97, 98, 99–100
silent partner approaches 35–7
Singapore
and Cambodia 96, 100
and China 81, 91, 168
and East Timor 46, 54–6, 143, 145, 153
and the Federation of Malaysia xii, xiii
and Indonesia xiii, 55, 135
joining ASEAN xi
South China Sea Dispute 178
and the Soviet Union 81
and the US 76, 175, 188–9
and Vietnam 76
Sino-Vietnamese border war 88
Smith, Michael LR 6–7, 13, 58, 59, 104–5, 151–2, 216, 217
Smyser, WR 35–6
social conflict theory 8, 105
social forces xvii, 1, 8–10, 11, 195, 218
social order 8, 59, 105, 106, 218
socialization effects 2, 4
Son Sann 97, 98, 99
South China Sea Dispute 163–211
constructivist scholarship 193–4, 215
critical theoretical scholarship 220
realist theory 194–5, 217–18
selection as a case study 18, 19
vanguard state theory 223
South Korea 130
Southeast Asia Command (SEAC) xii
Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) xii
sovereignty
in ASEAN Treaty xvi
and power 16
as technology of power 9
as vital interest 13
Westphalian model of 12, 16, 225, 227–8
Soviet Pacific Fleet 92
Soviet Union
and Cambodia 74–81, 87
and China 75, 80, 81, 87, 100–1 (p.270)
Cold War xii
collective security ideas 80
East Timor 30, 45
expansionist aims 34, 72
and Malaysia 80
and the Philippines 80
and Singapore 81
Third Indochina War 71, 103–4, 105–6
and the US 80
US-Indonesian Consultative Commission 37
and Vietnam 71, 73, 74–5, 85, 90, 99, 100–1, 219
special relationships 73
Spratly Islands 165, 167–8, 171, 177, 186, 194
Stahl, Max 120
state, role in the international system 9
state interest 13
state of emergency 119
states
critical theoretical scholarship 8
power 16
state-centric realist paradigm 12
as unified, rational actors 12
vanguard state theory xviii–xix, 10–16, 213, 218, 221–8
Stinchcombe, Arthur 18
Storey, Ian 190, 193
strategic shields 38
student-led demonstrations 128, 129, 171
Suharto, General xiii, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37–8, 41, 43, 44, 47, 52, 55, 58, 59, 60, 99, 100, 117, 119, 121, 127, 128, 130, 131, 151, 152, 218, 219, 220, 222
Sukarno, General xiii, 27, 44, 60
Sukarnoputri, Megawati 138
Supreme National Council 101
Suratman, Tono 138
Surin Pitsuwan 135
survival, as basic state interest 13, 15, 221
T
Taiwan 163, 165, 167
Tan, See Seng 226
Tan Boon Seng 55
Tang Siew Mun 178
technology of power mechanisms 8, 218
territorialization 10
Thailand
Asian financial crisis (1997) 126–7
and Cambodia 3, 82–3
and China 71, 81, 82, 85, 91, 93, 94, 95, 99, 217
colonial era xii
and East Timor 145
independence movements 45
and Indonesia xiii, 95, 124–5
joining ASEAN xi
and Malaysia 95
neutrality 91
and the Soviet Union 80
Third Indochina War 7, 71, 89, 219, 222
and the US 71, 95, 175
as vanguard state 72, 89–95, 101–2, 104, 217, 222, 223
and Vietnam 71, 77–8, 79, 91, 93, 94, 95, 98–9
Vietnam War 76
Thayer, Carlyle 174
Third Indochina War 71–116, 214–15
constructivist scholarship 103
critical theoretical scholarship 219
realist theory 7, 102, 104–6, 216
selection as a case study 18, 19
vanguard state theory 222, 224
threat perceptions 15
Timor Gap 31, 39, 57, 120, 147
Timor-Leste 146
Tjan, Harry 43
TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) 175, 188
Treaties of Friendship 73, 85, 87
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC, 1976) xvi
Trump, Donald 185, 186, 187–9, 191, 192
Truong Tan Seng 180
Truong Trieu Duong 181
U
UDT (Timorese Democratic Union) 28, 29, 31, 32–3, 47
UK (United Kingdom) xii, 25, 86, 141
UN (United Nations)
Cambodia 97–8
Charter xiii, xvi
Credentials Committee 96
diplomacy 89, 96
East Timor 47, 49–50, 117, 136–7
General Assembly 89–90, 98, 136, 226
General Assembly Resolution 35/6 96, 97
General Assembly Resolution 3485 25, 49, 52–3, 54–5
International Conferences 94, 96 (p.271)
peacekeeping 97, 117, 118, 142, 146–8, 149
Secretary General 91, 136, 139, 141, 142, 145
Security Council 3, 49, 51, 86–7, 89, 101, 136, 142
Security Council Resolution 384 49, 56
Security Council Resolution 1264 142
Special Representatives 50
Third Indochina War 72
UNAMET (United Nations Mission in East Timor) 137, 138–9, 142, 143
UNCLOS (Convention on the Law of the Sea) 165, 176
UNMISET (UN Mission of Support in East Timor) 146
UNTAET (United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor) 146
United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) 125
US (United States)
and ASEAN 152, 174–82, 190, 224
Asian financial crisis (1997) 126
and Cambodia 74, 86, 87–8, 93–4
and China 75, 81, 166, 171–2, 175, 178–9, 188–9, 192, 193, 216, 224
Cold War xii
East Timor humanitarian crisis 117, 137, 139–42, 147, 220, 222
East Timor invasion 25, 26, 50–1, 57, 58, 59, 216, 219
free and open Indo-Pacific strategy 188–9
and Indonesia 27, 31, 34–8, 48–54, 76, 118, 119, 121, 126, 129–31, 147–9
and Malaysia 76
and the Philippines 76, 79, 168, 173–80, 182–5, 187–8, 190–2, 195, 218, 223
pivot to Asia 164, 165, 175–6
realist theory 6–7
and Singapore 76, 175, 188–9
South China Sea Dispute 163–4, 166, 167, 168, 174–91, 192, 195, 215
and the Soviet Union 80
and Thailand 71, 95, 175
Third Indochina War 71
and Vietnam 45, 74–5, 174, 175–6, 178, 180–1, 192, 195, 218, 223
US Interagency Intelligence Memorandum 84
US-Indonesian Consultative Commission 37
V
Van Evera, Stephen 18
Vance, Cyrus 52, 75
vanguard state theory xviii–xix, 10–16, 213, 218, 221–8
variables, continuous 13
variables, dependent and independent 11–12
Vietnam
and Cambodia 73–4, 84–5, 86–7
Cold War xii
communism 27, 45, 73
diplomatic relations with ASEAN states 79
French colonialism xii
and India 193
and Indonesia 76–7, 78, 90, 99
intra-ASEAN power dynamics 16
joining ASEAN xi, xiv, 225
and Malaysia 76, 78, 99
and Philippines 77, 79, 90, 181
and Singapore 76
South China Sea Dispute 163–211
and the Soviet Union 71, 73, 74–5, 85, 90, 99, 100–1, 219
Third Indochina War 71–116, 219
and the US 45, 74–5, 174, 175–6, 178, 180–1, 192, 195, 218, 223
as vanguard state 164, 181, 191–3, 223, 224
Vietnam War 74, 75–7, 85
vital interests 13, 15, 31, 102, 221
voice opportunities thesis 10, 11
W
Walt, Stephen 102
Waltz, Kenneth 4, 13
watershed treaty 123, 141
Weatherbee, Donald xv
West New Guinea 31
West Papua 45, 129
West Timor 28, 33, 40
Westphalian model of sovereignty 12, 16, 225, 227–8
White, Hugh 132, 141, 142–3
Whitehouse, Charles 82
Whitlam, Gough 29, 39–42, 46, 53
Willesee, Don 39
Winspeare Guicciardi, Vittorio 50, 53
Wiranto, General 128, 135, 140, 142
Wolff, Lester 51–2 (p.272)
Woolcott, Richard 38, 41, 122, 123, 133
World Bank 127, 140, 142
World Trade Organisation 130
X
Xi Jinping 163, 187, 189
Xiu Dong Jia 171
Y
Yang Jiechi 172
Yasay Jr, Perfecto 183
Yeo, George 172
Yothin Mattayomnan 125
Z
ZOPFAN (Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality) 80, 83, 90, 92, 99, 169