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Lifelong Learning Policies for Young Adults in EuropeNavigating between Knowledge and Economy$

Marcelo Parreira do Amaral, Siyka Kovacheva, and Xavier Rambla

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781447350361

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: September 2020

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781447350361.001.0001

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(p.253) Index

(p.253) Index

Source:
Lifelong Learning Policies for Young Adults in Europe
Publisher:
Policy Press

Note: Page numbers for figures and tables appear in italics.

A
Aberdeen city 32–3
Aberdeen FR 27, 34, 35, 95, 96, 100
Aberdeenshire 32–3, 38, 161
activation 149, 202, 236, 237, 247
Back to the Future 222, 223
in Germany 135
NEETwork 225, 228
and SI 45, 49, 50
and YGS 67
adaptation strategy 237
ageing population 113, 204–5
agency 17, 118, 159, 166, 171, 174
Alentejo Litoral 28
anxiety 76
apprenticeships 34, 65, 66, 85, 94–6, 101, 114
decline 222
‘the magic bullet’ against youth unemployment 149
Aspin, D. N. 201
Atkinson et al 175
Austria 27, 28, 53, 83, 92, 152, 236
and apprenticeships 65, 66, 95–6
Back to the Future 221–4
and Du Kannst Was 55
tertiary education 77
and ‘theory of change’ 70
and VET 80–1, 89
WAFF 208
and YGS 82
and YUR 183
autonomy 163, 164–6, 247
B
Back to the Future 221–4
Ball, Stephen 201
Barbier, J. C. 49–50
Barros, R. 203
Beck, U. 237
Belgium 183
bell curve 110
Biesta, G. 201, 203
biography 9, 150, 151, 155, 156, 158, 159, 161
and civic responsibility 162
and difficult learning 234
and distrust in school system 229
LLL as turning point in 159
and SI 44
birth rate 113
Blagoevgrad FR 28, 96, 100, 142
Bonoli et al 50
Bourdieu, P. 206
Brannen, J. 15
Breen, R. 44
Bremen 27, 177
Brenner, N. 23
Brown, P. 210
Bulgaria 27, 28, 66, 73–4, 78, 83, 92
and employability training courses 100
and family support 67
GDP 152
higher education 96
and NEET rate 183
and poverty and ethnic distance 128
at risk of poverty or social exclusion 133
Roma 160
and social connections 79
statist regime 53
tertiary education attainment 180
and vocational training 81–2
and vulnerabilities 140–3, 144
and YGS 82
bullying 76–7
Busemeyer, M. R. 53, 88
C
Capsada-Munsech et al 53
careership theory 115
Casey, C. 48
Castel, R. 129, 137
Castells, M. 24 (p.254)
Castree et al 23
Catalonia 177
Centre for Further Education (Zentrum für Weiterbildung)/Germany 136–7
Chapman, J. D. 201
Child and Youth Policy Programme (Finland) 115
‘Christie Commission on the future delivery of public services’ 30, 37
citizenship 48
city region deals 30–1
city regions 30–5
civic service 162, 163, 246
class differences 112
class structure 121
collective action problems 88
collective regime 53
commensuration 178–9
Community Benefit Clauses (CBCs) 33–5
Community Planning Partnerships (CPPs) 37
comparative analysis, reporting and policy phase 14
competence recognition 114
complementarities 52–3
complexity reduction 7, 244, 245
comprehensive school system 112
conceptualisation of the theoretical perspectives 5
concordat approach 30
confidence 117, 143, 157, 161–2
conformist strategy 237
conservative regimes 67, 69
Contrato Local de Desenvolvimento Social (CLDS;
Local Contract of Social Development)/Portugal 139–40
coordinated policy-making 29–35
Corbin, J. 151
CPE (cultural political economy) 5–9, 66, 109–10, 120, 207, 235, 243, 251
Croatia 28, 53, 73, 83, 180, 183
and family support 67
GDP 152
and social connections 79
and vocational training 66, 78, 81–2, 208
and YGS 82
Crowther, J. 206
cultural changes 205
Cyprus 133, 180, 183
Czech Republic 133, 180
D
data collection, treatment and analysis phase 13
decentralisation 207–8
demand-side factors 86, 87, 101
Denmark 180, 183
dependency ratio 113
d’Ercole, M. M. 133
de-standardisation 109, 115, 167, 173, 210, 213, 248, 249
and Finland 116
de-territorialisation 23–4
Developing the Young Workforce project 38
deviance 111
diplomas 77, 80, 83, 141
disadvantage 35
disadvantaged young people xvii, 44, 133, 141
and employability 208
in Finland 115, 119, 120–1, 233
in Glasgow FR 34–5
and Matthew effect 50, 237
and NEETwork 224, 225, 226
discrimination xxiv, 115, 132
dispositions 115
‘Dote Unica’ 208
double skill bias 173
Du Kannst Was 55, 57
Dye, T. R. 23
E
early school leavers 65–7, 92, 141, 153, 154, 155–6, 159–60, 248
and employability training courses 98
National Strategy for Reduction of Early School Leaving (Bulgaria) 141 see also school dropout
early school leavers (ESL) rate 175, 180, 182, 183, 186, 187, 188 (p.255)
economic growth xvii, 5, 10, 53, 127, 172, 199, 203
in Finland 121
in Portugal 138, 139
in Scotland 30, 33, 34
and SI 43, 44, 51, 55
sluggish 152
economic insecurity 174
educational attainment 139, 183, 186 see also tertiary education attainment (TEA) rate
educational inequality 56, 141
educational policies 8, 56, 114, 115–16, 141, 204
educational programmes 29, 116, 249
educational trajectories 153–4
education system 45, 46, 86–7, 89, 154–7, 172, 174
in Bulgaria 140
in Finland 111, 112
in Scotland 36
Elder, G. 150
embeddedness 29–30, 36, 37
emigration 157
employability 86–7, 140, 144–5, 203, 204, 233–4
and labour market demands 207–8
and special needs 222
Employability Pipeline 71–2
employability training courses 85, 97–100, 101
employment 98, 113–14, 152, 173
temporary 131, 143–4
empowerment 234
equal opportunities 112
ethnic minorities 142, 144
EU (European Union) 47, 66–7, 68, 132–3
European Commission (EC) 66–7, 68, 204
‘key competences for lifelong learning’ xx
European Council 67, 68
European Employment Services (EURES) 142
European Social Fund (ESF) 208
Eurostat 25, 26–7, 175–6
EU Structured Dialogue 247
exclusion zone 129
experiential stage 16
F
Facebook 225
family support 67
Faure et al 203
financial crisis, 2008 112–13
Finland 28, 98–9, 106–7, 111–19, 120–1
and apprenticeships 65, 66, 96
and early school leavers 92
Ohjaamo Centre 230–5
statist regime 53
tertiary education 77, 78
and VET 89
and YGS 70–1, 82, 83, 236
and YUR 183
flexploitation 206
Forster, M. 133
Fouarge, D. 133
Foucault, M. 201
France 183
Freire, Paulo 203
FRs (functional regions) 21–2, 25–39, 176, 207–8, 242
functional urban areas (FUAs) 25, 27
Furlong, A. 183
G
Gaussian distribution 110
GDP per capita 152, 221, 226
gender 75
Genoa 28, 162–3
Germany 27, 28, 53, 83, 128, 152, 164
and apprenticeships 65, 66
and employability 144
tertiary education 77, 78
and ‘theory of change’ 70, 71
and VET 80–1, 89, 210
and vulnerability 135–7
and YGS 82
and YUR 183
Girona 27, 28, 99
Glaser, B. G. 15
Glasgow City 28
Glasgow City Region 31–2, 33, 34–5
Glasgow FR 34–5, 96
global financial crisis, 2008 112–13 (p.256)
globalisation 22, 23, 107, 205
goodness of fit 52, 54, 55
Gorur, R. 108
governance 5, 10–11, 109, 120, 207, 243, 247, 251
and Aberdeen FR 38
definition 107–8
Germany 136
Italy 226
and NEETwork 225
and regional polarisation 248–9
Granovetter, Mark 29, 37
Great Recession 183
Greece 133, 180, 183
Green, A. 204, 205–6
Griffin, C. 204
Grue, Lars 110
H
Habermas, J. 36
Hall, P. A. 52–3
Harvey, D. 39
Heiberg, Arvid 110
Heidegger, M. 128
Heinz et al 211
Held, David 22, 24
Held et al 24
Helsinki 113
Hemerijck, A. 49, 55
Hesketh, A. 210
higher education 92, 96, 154–5
high-skilled demand 99
Hirschman, A. O. 237
Homer 250
horizons for action 115
human capital 47, 48, 50, 56, 205, 223
Hungary 133, 180
hyper-complexity 7
I
Illich, Ivan 203
imaginaries 7
immigrant youth 77, 155, 156–7, 165–6
immigration 138
income 112, 144
individualisation 44, 212
inequalities 44, 48, 50, 54, 55, 174, 175
educational 56, 141
income 144
between social classes 121
information technology 205
inherent vulnerability 129
insecurity 174
institutional change 53
institutional complementarities 52, 53–4
institutional political economy 88
integration zone 129, 137, 140, 141, 144, 145
Ireland 180
Istria County 28, 208
Italy 27, 28, 54–5, 72, 83, 152–3
‘Dote Unica’ 208
and family support 67
NEETwork 224–30, 236
at risk of poverty or social exclusion 133
statist regime 53
tertiary education attainment 180
and VET 66, 78, 81, 210
and vulnerability 79–80
and YGS 82
Youth Guarantee Implementation Plan 162–3
and YUR 92, 183
Ithaca 250
J
Jessop, B. 6, 7, 8, 38–9
job insecurity 131, 142–3
K
Kainuu 28, 71, 97, 99, 106, 119
Kazepov, V. 54–5
Khadzijski, I. 244
Klapka et al 25
knowledge economy 204, 205, 213
Kotthoff et al 200
Kovacheva et al 142
L
labour market 46, 144, 174
and employability 207
in Glasgow 32
and human capital 47, 56
and intelligence and monitoring 30
policies 113–14, 251–2
and SI 49, 50 (p.257)
transition from school 10
and upskilling 44, 83
young adults need to strengthen their ties with 210 see also regional labour markets
labour market allocation 89
Land Source of Income Foundation 160
launching, conceptualisation and policy-mapping phase 13
LCR (life course research) 5, 9–10, 68–9, 207, 243, 251
learning outcomes 111, 112
learning society 46, 204, 205–6
Learning to Be: The World of Education Today and Tomorrow 202–3
learning trajectories 153–4
‘learning turn’ 43
Lefebvre, H. 39
Le Gales, Patrick 108
Levine et al 130
liberal adult education system 111
liberal regimes 53
libraries 111
life course 9–10, 57, 120, 211–12, 246–8
de-standardisation 109, 115, 116, 167, 210, 213, 249
and Ithaca 250
transitions 150–1
life cycle 9
lifelong education 202–3, 213
life opportunities 121
life satisfaction 114
lifestyle changes 205
lifeworld 36
Lisbon Strategy 207
literacy 141
Lithuania 180
living conditions 113, 152–3, 171, 172–89, 194–7
Livingstone, D. W. 47
LLL, concept of 46–8
local labour market areas (LMAs) 25 see also FRs (functional regions)
low achievers 112
low-paid work 120
low-skilled jobs 75, 98, 99, 115, 228
low skills 173
Luxembourg 180, 183
M
Mackenzie et al 129
Macmillan, Mark 31
Málaga 27, 28, 97–8, 208
Malta 133, 180, 183
Massey, Doreen 39
materiality 200, 201
Matthew effect 50, 237
maximalist vision 46
Mayntz, Renate 11
McCarthy, J. 23
McGrew, Anthony 22, 24
meaning-making 7–8
Merton, R. 237–8
Les Métamorphoses de la question sociale (Castel) 129
metropolitan areas 27, 113, 164, 226
migrants 159, 208, 221, 227, 246
migration 75–6, 165, 177, 221, 222, 248
Milan 27, 208, 224–30
minimum wage 120
minorities 115
minority ethnic young people 142, 144
mixed-methods 14–15
mobility 78
Muffels, R. 133
multi-level and multi-method comparative analysis 12–16, 218–19
multistage lives 210–11
N
narrative approach 218, 220–38
National Performance Framework (Scotland) 34
The National Strategy for Continuing Vocational Training (Bulgaria) 141
The National Strategy for Lifelong Learning (Bulgaria) 141
National Strategy for Reduction of Early School Leaving (Bulgaria) 141
National Strategy to Promote and Improve Literacy Skills (Bulgaria) 141
‘National Youth Guarantee Scheme’ (Bulgaria) 142, 143
National Youth Work Strategy 2014–2019 (Scottish Government) 30 (p.258)
nation state 17, 21, 23, 24, 87, 172
needs-oriented subsidies 221
NEET (not in education, employment or training) 67, 138, 160, 175, 225, 248
in Italy 227, 228, 236
NEET rate 113, 183, 185, 186, 187, 188, 226
NEETwork 224–30
negative complementarities 53–4, 56
Netherlands 133, 183
network society 24
non-participants 67
normal distribution 110
normality 106, 110, 111, 120
norms 110–11
O
Odysseus 250
The Odyssey 250
OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) 112
Ohjaamo Centre 230–5
Opportunities for All 38
opportunity structures 113, 175
Osijek-Baranja County 28
overqualification 47
P
participation rates 111
Pastore, F. 174
path dependency 188, 248
personal development 159
‘Perspective with a Plan’ (PmP) 136–7
Piketty, T. 127
PISA 112
place 22–3
place-based territorial approach 248
Plovdiv 27, 28, 96, 142
Poland 180
Polanyi, Karl 29, 37
polarisation 117, 120, 248–9
policies, meaning 200–2
Policies Supporting Young People in their Life Course:
A Comparative Perspective of Lifelong Learning and Inclusion in Education and Work in Europe see YOUNG_ ADULLLT
policy learning 17–18
Policy Scotland 38
policy transfer 17–18
Portugal 28, 53, 72, 78–80, 83, 128
and early school leavers 65–6, 153
and family support 67
and labour market integration 144
and NEET rate 183
and VET 81, 210
and vulnerability 138–40
and YGS 82
poverty 120, 128, 132–4, 139, 140, 143, 175
and vulnerability 144
power 111
Pressman, J. L. 235
primary schools 140
public libraries 111
‘public–private–people partnership’ 70–1
Q
Quetelet, Adolphe 110
R
Ranci, C. 55
rebellion 237
recession 183
Regional Civic Service Programme (Genoa) 162, 163
regionalisation 38
regional labour markets 92–4, 97–100, 101
retention 8–9
re-territorialisation 23, 24
retreatist strategy 237
Rhein-Main 27, 28, 164
Ribeiro et al 139
risk 130
risk societies 44
ritualist strategy 237
Rizvi, F. 47–8
Robertson, S. 39
Roma 140–1, 160
Romania 133, 180
Ryan, P. 173
S
sanctions 115–16, 120
scale 23 (p.259)
school bullying 76–7
school dropout 140, 156, 158, 159, 211 see also early school leavers
schools 112, 154, 242
school-to-work transition 10, 58, 113, 140, 150, 155, 173, 174
Scotland 27, 28, 29–35, 36, 37, 38, 53
and apprenticeships 65, 66, 95
and employability training courses 100
higher/tertiary education 77, 78, 96
and ‘theory of change’ 70, 71–2
and YGS 82
Scottish parliament 30
secondary schools 242
selection 8–9
self-confidence 117
self-creation 159
self-determination 171–2
self-esteem 117, 118, 161–2, 163, 222, 247
in-service training 111
Single Outcome Agreements 37
situational vulnerability 129
skill formation systems 53, 88, 93–4, 100–1
skills 91, 111, 173, 207, 209, 222, 223
Skills Development Scotland’s (SDS) Regional Skills Analysis (RSA) report 32–3
Slovakia 180
Slovenia 180
social assistance systems 127, 131
social benefits 121
social classes 112, 121
social cohesion 204
social connections 79
social disadvantage 174
social exclusion 73, 114–15, 120, 129, 130, 132–4, 143, 144
social inclusion 139, 140–1
social integration 174
Social Integration Income (Portugal) 140
social investment (SI) 43–6, 48–58
Social Investment Package 48–9
social mobility 78
social norm 110–11
social policies 51
social security 121
socioeconomic background 112
sociological LCR 9
soft skills 173, 207, 209, 222, 223
Soskice, D. 53
Southern Europe, and VET 209–10
south-west Finland 71, 106, 230–5
space 22–3
Spain 27, 28, 72, 83, 92, 97–8
and employability training courses 99
and ESL 65–6, 152–3, 180
and family support 67
at risk of poverty or social exclusion 133
statist regime 53
and VET 81, 210
and vulnerability 79–80
and YGS 82
and YUR 183
special needs 222
standards 108–9
statist regime 53
stereotyping 82
stigma 75
storytelling 218, 220–38
Strategic Development Planning Authority (SDPA) 32
Strategy for Educational Integration of Children and Students from Ethnic Minorities (Bulgaria) 142
Strauss, A. 15, 151
Streeck et al 54
street-level professionals 209
subsidies 223–4
supply and demand, matching 210
supply-side factors 86, 87, 101
Sweden 133, 180, 183
synergic policy mixes 51
T
Taylor, P. J. 23
‘Teaching and Learning:
Towards a Learning Society’ 204
temporal gaps 56
temporary employment 131, 143–4
territorialisation 23
tertiary education 77, 78, 248 (p.260)
tertiary education attainment (TEA) rate 175, 180, 181, 183, 186, 187, 188
‘theory of change’ 65, 66, 68, 70, 71, 72
Third Way 50
Trampusch, C. 53, 88
triangulation 16
U
UK 89, 92, 152 see also Scotland
uncertainty 130–1
unemployment 113, 115–16, 119, 120, 138, 139, 226
and poverty and social exclusion 144
unemployment benefits 116
unemployment rate 89, 91, 92, 100, 175, 183, 184, 186
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) xx
Lifelong Education Unit 46
universalistic welfare regimes 67
Upper Austria 27, 55, 96
urban areas 177
V
Vale do Ave 28
variation 8–9
varieties of capitalism (VoC) 52–3
Vatsa, K. 128
VbFF (Verein zur beruflichen Förderung von Frauen/Association for the Professional Development of Women) 137
Verdier, É. 174
VET (vocational education and training) 32, 34, 53, 66, 78, 80–1, 87, 88–9, 90
and financing 208
in Germany 80–1, 135
not prestigious and less valued than standard academic path 209–10
Vienna 27, 28, 95–6, 177, 221–4
Vienna Employment Promotion Fund (WAFF) 208
volunteering 162–3
vulnerability 79–81, 127–45, 175, 245
vulnerable persons 105
W
WAFF (Vienna Employment Promotion Fund) 208
a ‘wait-and-see’ attitude 157–9
Waite et al 38
waithood 246
Walker, M. 48
Walther, A. 174
welfare policies 51
welfare state 53, 112, 121, 174, 204
and SI 45, 48, 49, 50
welfare subsidies 223–4
well-being 113–14, 121
Wildavsky, A. B. 235
Wilensky, H. L. 51
work-based learning 114
Y
YOUNG_ADULLLT xx–xxii, 4, 9–10, 12, 26, 27–8, 45
definition of policies 200
and Du Kannst Was 55
narrative approach 220, 235
in Scotland 34, 35
and skill formation typology 53
youth employment 98, 113–14, 131, 143–4, 152, 173
Youth Guarantee Implementation Plan (Italy) 162
Youth Guarantee Scheme (YGS) 67, 68, 70, 81–2, 83, 156, 224
in Finland 230, 232, 236
and ‘theory of change’ 72
youth unemployment 97–8, 119, 120
youth unemployment rate (YUR) 89, 91, 92, 100, 175, 183, 184, 186, 187
Yugozapaden 177
Z
zone of integration 129, 137, 140, 141, 144, 145
zone of vulnerability 129, 137, 140, 141, 144, 145