This chapter examines the housing situation of households who may be considered to live in absolute poverty in the EU. As poverty is multidimensional, those living on inadequate incomes are likely to be deprived in a variety of ways relating to housing. Using the EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions, the first part of the chapter assesses the extent to which such households experience housing problems such as overcrowding and sub-standard dwelling quality. It also explores some housing-related risks they face, specifically burdensome housing costs and rent/mortgage arrears. These risks significantly increase their probability of becoming homeless. In addition, people experiencing these problems are likely to have periodic and/or on-going challenges paying for other essential goods, such as food and energy. Given the limitations of household surveys in capturing information on certain groups living in ‘extreme poverty’, the chapter also presents a case study of one group which experiences extreme housing exclusion in a relatively wealthy European society – the Roma in Ireland. The case study draws on data from a national needs assessment of Roma and highlights the specific challenges faced by this particularly vulnerable group.
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