This chapter considers international perspectives in the area of health promotion. It begins with an overview of health promotion as a global enterprise, citing major developments such as the founding of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Alma Ata Declaration, and the introduction of the notion of the social determinants of health by Thomas McKeown. It then examines the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) and the five health promotion areas that it identified for achieving better health: building healthy public policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. The chapter goes on to discuss other international health promotion initiatives, including the Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World (2005) and the Helsinki Global Conference on Health Promotion (2013). Finally, it analyses the role of the WHO in health promotion, along with the issues of health inequalities and health inequities.
Keywords: health promotion, World Health Organization, Alma Ata Declaration, Thomas McKeown, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion 1986, health services, Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World 2005, Helsinki Global Conference on Health Promotion 2013, health inequalities
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