This chapter draws together the empirical material of the preceding chapters and some additional quantitative evidence on labour market policies and reforms to answer the questions of the book: has labour market policy retrenchment or expansion taken place and if so, in what form? Has there has been a shift in the logic of activation policies? How have retrenchment and expansion of protection been distributed across the well-protected and the less well-protected labour market populations? Looking at the big European picture, do we see a convergence or a divergence in labour market and unemployment policy trends and outputs? Do the patterns of change vary across member states and, if so, how? The chapter also explores the evolution of labour market insecurity and examines whether there seems to be convergence or divergence in that respect. Finally, the chapter also discusses any emerging questions for future research.
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