This chapter considers the changing nature of war as a context for tactical rape and sexual violence. It highlights how the conflicts in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s exemplified new wars and how tactical rape and sexual violence were particularly effective. The social relationships of communities and cultures contribute to rendering women vulnerable in peace time and exacerbate their vulnerability in conflict. Patriarchy contributes and there is a need to confront such social attitudes and the policies and practices which build on it. Testimonies from survivors, victims and observers in Rwandan and former Yugoslavia contribute to understanding the impact of tactical rape and sexual violence in these conflicts.
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