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Race Policy and Multiracial Americans$

Kathleen Odell Korgen

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9781447316459

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781447316459.001.0001

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(p.227) Index

(p.227) Index

Source:
Race Policy and Multiracial Americans
Publisher:
Policy Press

Note: page numbers in italic type refer to Figures; those in bold refer to Tables.

A
AAACC (African American Art and Cultural Complex) 207, 215–16
AANAPISIs (Asian American, Native American, Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions) 144, 149
ACS (American Community Survey) data 31, 32, 32–3, 34, 35, 36, 37–47, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
adolescents, multiracial; mental health and health behaviors 156, 157, 158
advertising, and multiraciality 129, 132, 191, 195
affirmative action programs 101–3
assets and liabilities of 109–11
and the diversity rationale 102, 103, 107–9
in higher education 111–17
and multiracial Americans 7, 113–18
opposition to 74, 75
origins of 103–7
Affordable Care Act 162
alcohol use 156, 157
Alinsky, Saul 207–8, 210, 217
AMEA (MultiEthnic American) 23, 24
American Civil Liberties Union 22
American Indian Alaskan Native people; health issues 157, 160, 161
American Indian Higher Education Consortium 149
Americans, as a term 52
anti-discrimination legislation 4, 223
suspect class 81–3, 94, 95, 96
suspect classification 82, 83, 94
anti-miscegenation legislation 2, 13, 14–15, 22, 84–5, 95, 193
anticommunism 105
antiracism activism 62
APFU (A Place for Us) 23, 24
(p.228) Asian or Pacific Islander (racial category) 4, 22, 71
Asian-American people 192
demographics 194
health issues 160, 161
social class and racial identity 68
Asian-Some Other Race (racial category); socio-economic profiles 31–2, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 118
assimilation see racial assimilation
B
Barron, Jessica M. 6, 29–49, 118, 222
Beeman, Angie 173
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Scheme 157–8
bilingualism, of multiracial groups 34, 35, 36, 37, 41–2, 42, 43
biological races, belief in 86–7, 92–3, 95
birth certificates, and racial categorization 23
Black people:
health issues 155, 160, 161, 164
killing of by police officers 221
and residential racial segregation 44–5
Black Seminoles 15–16
Black-American Indian Alaskan Native (racial category); socio-economic profiles 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37
Black-Asian (racial category); socioeconomic profiles 32, 34, 35, 36, 44, 45, 46–7
Black-White multiracial people
social class and racial identity 68, 69, 70, 194 see also White-Black (racial category)
blood quantum system of racial categorization 16
Bonilla-Silva, E. 73, 198, 200
Botts, Tina Fernandes 6–7, 81–100
Bratter, Jenifer L. 8, 155–71, 180, 222
bridge-building 196
Brown University 147
Brown v. Board of Education 22, 56, 103
Brown, Michael 221
Browning of America 194
Brunsma, David L. 4, 8, 29, 68, 69, 143, 191–205, 197, 224
Bryn Mawr College 115
Buckner, J. 146–7
C
Campbell, Mary E. 6, 29–49, 72, 118, 222
Chavez, G. 156–7
Cheerios advertisement 129, 132, 191, 195
Chicago; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
Chilungu, E. Namisi 7, 123–37, 217
Chinese-Hawaiians 18–20
Circle of Healing program, Native American Health Center 212–14
Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District 56
Civil Rights Act, 1866 88
Civil Rights Act, 1964 22, 89, 103
civil rights movement 103, 109
Clark, T.T. 157
CMR (critical mixed race) studies 1–2, 4, 140–1, 208–9, 223
Cohen, Cathy 209
colleges see higher education
color-blind ideology 7, 9, 73–4, 76, 102, 104, 173, 192, 193, 200
in prisons 175, 182–3, 187, 188
colorism 129–30
Columbus, Christopher 131
Common Application 115, 117
Common Core Curriculum 132–3
community-based health initiatives 163–4
Connerly, Ward 74, 102
consensus issues, in social justice 209
crisis management, in the Nixon administration 105
critical race studies 4, 223
cross-cutting issues, in social justice 209
Cuba 54
cultural resource centers, in higher education 146–7
curriculum issues, and multiracial students 130–3
D
DaCosta, K. 195
DataCenter for Research Justice 207, 210–12
(p.229) De Blasio, Bill 197
DeFoe v. Spiva 91
Delgado, D.J. 143, 197
Democratic Party 105, 106
demographics, racial 194
Department of Education 112, 113, 114, 115, 117–18, 141
diversity rationale 102, 103, 107–9
Dominican Republic 54
E
education:
critical and culturally responsive pedagogy 124–5
profiles of multiracial groups 33, 34, 36, 43–4, 44, 118
and racial identity 68 see also higher education
educational policy, and multiracial Americans 7, 123–34
EEO (equal employment opportunity) 107–8
Eggerling-Boeck, J. 72
El Salvador 54
eliminativist position 92–3
Embrick, D.G. 200
employment discrimination 89
EEO (equal employment opportunity) 107–8
Equal Protection Clause (14th Amendment to the US Constitution) 87–8
eugenics 21–2, 84–5
Executive Order 10925 104
Executive Order 11246 104
F
Fair Housing Act 1968 103
Fhagen-Smith, P. 70
FICE (Federal Interagency Committee on Education) 22
FIPHE (Factors Influencing the Pursuit of Higher Education) survey 126
Fisher v. University of Texas 117
FITW (First in the World) program 148–9
Florida Everglades 15–16
Four Corners region 16
Frum, David 110
Furst, Gennifer 8, 173–89
Fusion program 217
G
gangs, in prisons 185–7
Garner, Eric 221
Gasser, H.S. 151
geographic variations, in socio-economic profiles of multiracial Americans 29, 38, 38–45, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
Georgia; teacher education 123–4
Gibbs Leger, D. 194
Gingrich, Newt 1, 74–5
González, Juan 55
Goodman, P. 174
Gorman, B.K. 159
Gorski, P. 131–2
Green v. Franklin National Bank 91
Grutter v. Bollinger 111, 117
H
Hall, C.C.I. 70
Hamako, E. 147
Harris, D.R. 67, 72, 73
Hawaii:
Chinese-Hawaiians 18–20
Native Hawaiians 70, 71–2
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities) 144, 149
health issues:
community-based health initiatives 163–4
mental health and health behaviors 156–7
and multiracial Americans 8, 155–9, 160, 161, 223
data requirements 165–7
and health policy 162–4
health-care inequalities 164–5
Hernández v. Texas 56
HHS (Department of Health and Human Services) 162–3
higher education:
affirmative action programs 103, 106–7, 108–9, 111–17
cultural resource centers 146–7
institutional diversity 1440145
and multiracial students 7–8, 113–17, 139–41, 151–2
diversity in 141–5
future policy issues 149–51
and language 147–8
strategies for 145–7, 223
and underrepresentation 148–9
Higher Education Act 1965 113, 149
Hispanic people 9n1
adoption as a term 58–61
demographics 194 see also Latina/o people
Hispanic/Latino (racial/ethnic category) 4, 22
in higher education 113, 114, 115, 141
in prison 176, 177, 178, 179, 182
self-identification of 70
(p.230) socio-economic profiles 222
HIV/AIDS, and the Circle of Healing program, Native American Health Center 212–14
Honolulu; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 39, 40, 40, 41, 41, 42, 42, 43, 43, 44, 44, 45
Hopwood v. Texas 111
Houston; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 39, 40, 40, 41, 41, 42, 42, 43, 44
HSIs (Hispanic-Serving Institutions) 144, 149
hypodescent 13, 16, 86, 95, 145
I
Immigration and Nationality Act 1965 192
immigration reform 61
income profiles of multiracial groups 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 38–40, 40
Indian Reorganization Act, 1934 16
integration see racial integration
interracial relationships/marriages 183–5
attitudes towards 2, 3,, 23–4, 129, 130, 132, 191, 193, 195–6
legalization of 22
statistics on 3, 23 see also anti-miscegenation legislation
intersectionality 208
IPEDS (Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System) 112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 141–2
iPride 217
J
Jim Crow laws 21, 85, 95, 103
Johnson, Lyndon 103–4
Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P. 7–8, 139–54
Johnston, M.P. 143
Jolivette, Andrew 9, 207–20, 224
K
Karabel, Jerome 107
Kennedy, John F. 104
Khanna, Nikki 6, 67–80, 180
King, Jr., Martin Luther 104
Korematsu v. United States 82
Korgen, Kathleen Odell 1–11, 8, 173–89, 221–4
L
Latina/o people 6, 9n1, 51–3, 61–3
and ‘Hispanic’ identification 58–61
assimilation of 56–8
demographics 53, 55
either Hispanic or Latino (racial/ethnic category) 4
racializing/re-racializing of 52–6
Voces del Canal project 210
Latina/o-Asian (racial category); socioeconomic profiles 32, 34, 36, 37
Latina/o-Black-Some Other Race (racial category); socio-economic profiles 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 118
Latina/o-White-Some Other Race (racial category); socio-economic profiles 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 40, 41, 41, 42, 42, 43, 44, 118
Lipson, Daniel N. 7, 101–22
Literte, P.E. 146
Los Angeles; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45
Loving Day celebrations 195
Loving v. Virginia 22, 24, 84, 193, 195
Lunceford, C.J. 141–2
M
Madison v. IBP 91
marginal man 90–1
marketing, and multiraciality 129, 132, 191, 195, 200
marriages, interracial see interracial relationships/marriages
Maryland 84
Mason, Christa 8, 155–71, 222
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 115
MAVIN 197, 216
melting pot ideology 19
mental health issues 156, 157
mestizos, in New Spain 17–18
Mexican people 54, 55
and US race policy 54, 55–6 see also Latina/o people
Mexican-Americans 55–6
micro-aggressions, and multiracial students 139–40
middle class culture, and racial identity 70–1, 72–5, 76
military, and diversity-based affirmative action 108
monoracialism 140
monoracism 139–40
Mora, G. Christina 59
Moyers, Bill 51
MSIs (Minority-Serving Institutions) 144, 149
mulattos 15, 17, 18, 21, 84
multi-issue organizing 207–8
multicultural education 123–5, 132
(p.231) multiracial:
as a term/definition 1, 3 see also multiraciality
multiracial adolescents; mental health and health behaviors 156, 157, 158
multiracial Americans:
affirmative action programs 7, 113–18
antipathy towards 91
demographics 3, 34, 36, 67, 155, 194
discrimination against 6–7
distinctive identity of 90–2
educational policy 7, 123–4
health issues 155–9, 160, 161
data requirements 165–7
and health policy 162–4
health-care inequalities 164–5
historical overview 5–6, 13–25
prisons 8, 174–88
socio-economic profiles of 6, 29–31, 45–7
adults 33, 34, 35, 38, 38–9, 41, 41–2, 42, 43–5, 44, 46
children 35, 36, 37, 39–40, 40, 42, 43, 45–6
geographic variations 29, 38, 38–45, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
use of survey data 31–2, 32
stereotypes of 165
multiraciality 201–2
increasing popularity of 195–6
language of 147–8
and the matrix of race 191–3
negative aspects 199–201
positive aspects 193–7
and the status quo 198–9 see also multiracial
multizo 54
N
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) 1
Nagai, Tyrone 5–6, 13–28, 84, 85
NAMSO (National Association of Mixed Student Organizations) 148
Native American Health Center’s Circle of Healing program 207, 212–14
Native American people 69, 71
and curriculum issues 131
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (racial category) 4, 60, 70, 71–2
in higher education 114, 115–16, 141
Navajo 16
New Spain; mestizos 17–18
New York; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 39, 40, 41, 41, 42, 42, 43, 43, 44, 45
NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 158, 159, 160
Nixon, Richard 104, 105–6
NPA (National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities) 163
O
Obama, Barack 74, 132, 173, 197, 209
OMB (Office of Management and Budget); racial categorization 4, 22–3, 60, 71–2, 157
OMH (Office of Minority Health) 163
one drop rule 2, 13, 14–15, 23, 24, 68, 85–6, 95, 128, 173
social/cultural breakdown of 193–4
P
Parents Involved v. Seattle 117
Park, Robert 90
Parker, J.D. 159, 161
Penner, A.M. 174, 187
Pennsylvania State University 115
percentage plans, in higher education admissions policies 111
Philadelphia; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
Phipps, Susie Guillory 23
Phoenix; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 42, 43, 44
Plessy v. Ferguson 85, 95
Plessy, Homer 21, 22
police killing of unarmed Black men 221
post-racialism 192, 193, 200
prisons, and multiracial Americans 8, 174–88, 224
Project RACE (Reclassify All Children Equally) 23, 24, 74, 75
Puerto Rico 54
Q
Quiñones-Rosado, Raúl 6, 29, 51–66
R
(p.232) race policy 4–5, 72–5
and multiracial Americans 3–4, 6–8
and racial assimilation 56–61, 62–3
for social justice 221–4
race, as a concept 2
biological races, belief in 86–7, 92–3, 95
racial assimilation, of Latina/o people 56–61, 62–3
racial categorization 4, 13, 21, 22–3, 24, 58, 133, 173, 216, 223
on birth certificates 23
blood quantum system 16
and the one drop rule 2, 13, 14–15, 23, 24, 68, 85–6, 95, 128, 173, 193–4
in prisons 174, 181
self-identification of 30–1, 69, 110, 194
racial discrimination 62
and anti-miscegenation legislation 2, 13, 14–15, 22, 84–5, 95, 193
and employment 89, 222
and the Jim Crow laws 21, 85, 95, 103
against multiracial Americans 6–7, 81–3, 86–96
and the one drop rule 2, 13, 14–15, 23, 24, 68, 85–6, 95, 128, 173, 193–4
racial hierarchy 8, 13, 29–33, 34, 35, 92, 200
geographic variations 29, 38, 38–45, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
and multiracial adults 33, 34, 35, 38, 38–9, 41, 41–2, 42, 43–5, 44, 46
and multiracial children 35, 36, 37, 39–40, 40, 42, 43, 45–6
racial identity 4, 6, 62, 197
factors influencing 67–8
and multiracial students 126–9, 142–4
in prisons 179–82
and racial assimilation 57
and social class 68–71
racial integration 56
racial justice, policies for 9, 221–4
racial policies 192
racial purity, belief in 84, 87
racial realism 93
racial reconciliation 196–7
racial segregation 21, 22
and the Jim Crow laws 21, 85, 95, 103
residential 44–5
in US armed forces 56
racial superiority, belief in:
eugenics 21–2, 84–5
White supremacy 13, 21, 192–3, 200–1
racialization 191–2
racism 186–7
and multiracial students 128
in prisons 186–7
and racial realism 93 see also racial discrimination
racism evasiveness 173
REACH (Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health) 163–4
reconstructionism 93
Reece, E.J. 20
Regents of the University of California, Davis Medical School v. Bakke 82, 103, 106–7
Reid, K. 125–6
Renn, Kristen A. 7–8, 139–54
Republican Party 105, 106
residential areas:
multiracial self-identification 69–70
residential racial segregation 44–5
Revised Philadelphia Plan 1969 104, 105–6
RJ (research justice) 210–12
Rockquemore, K.A. 69, 143, 197
Rodríguez, Ricardo 55–6
Root, Maria P.P. 24
ROSS (race-oriented student services) 146–7
S
San Antonio; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 43, 44
San Diego; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
San Jose; socio-economic profiles of multiracial groups 38, 38, 40, 41, 42, 42, 43, 44
San Rafael, California 210
Sanchez, D. 156–7
Saperstein, A. 174, 187
Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action 117
secondary marginalization 209
self-identification of racial categorization 30–1, 69, 194
fraudulent 110
Seminoles 15–16
Shek, Y.L. 146
Shih, M. 156
Sim, J.J. 67, 72
skin tone 46, 129–30, 199
Skretny, J.D. 105
slavery 14–15, 131
abolition of 21, 88
and the Seminoles 15–16
Smith, Linda 212
smoking behaviors 156, 157
social class, and racial identity 6, 68–71, 72–5, 76, 199
(p.233) social constructionism 93, 102
social justice, and multiracial organizations 207–16
new social justice framework 217–18
and policy reform 216–17
social media, and multiracial student identity 151
Spain, and mestizos 17–18
Spanish-American War 54
Speak Out-Institute for Democratic Education and Culture 207, 214–15
Spencer, Rainier 1
Squires, C.R. 74
State v. Brown 84
Stephan, C.W. 70
stereotypes of multiracial Americans 165
Stonequist, Everett Verner 90
Strmic-Pawl, Hephzibah V. 4, 8, 29, 191–205, 196, 200–1, 224
substance misuse 156, 157
Survey of Biracial Experiences 126
suspect class, in anti-discrimination legislation 81–3, 94, 95, 96
suspect classification, in anti-discrimination legislation 82, 83, 94
T
TCUs (Tribal Colleges and Universities) 144, 149
teacher education:
and multicultural education 123–4, 125
and multiracial students 223
Texas; ban on affirmative action programs 111
three-fifths clause 20–1
Top Ten Percent Plan, Texas 111
transcendent identities 69, 71, 173
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 54
Twine, F.W. 70
Two or More Races (racial category):
demographics 194
in higher education 141, 147, 150
U
Udry, J.R. 125
underrepresentation 148–9
Unemployment Relief Act, 1933 89
United States v. Carolene Products 82
universities see higher education
University of California:
admissions system 115
Regents of the University of California, Davis Medical School v. Bakke 82, 103, 106–7
University of Michigan 116
University of Texas 116
Fisher v. University of Texas 117
Urban League 1, 104
US:
citizenship rights 54
war on Mexico 54, 55
US Census 21, 58–9
racial categorization 3, 4, 24, 60–1, 71–2, 74, 223
US Constitution:
14th Amendment 87–8
and racial issues 20–1
US Federal Court 56
US Naturalization Act 1790 54
US Supreme Court 21, 22, 56, 82, 85
V
Virginia 14–15, 84
Voces del Canal project 210
Voting Rights Act 1965 103
W
Wardle, F. 131
Warren, Elizabeth 110
Wayne State University 112
Wheaton V. North Oakland Medical Center 91
White people:
health issues 159, 160, 161, 165
and residential racial segregation 44–5
White privilege 200–1
White supremacy 13, 21, 192–3, 200–1
White-American Indian Alaskan Native (racial category):
demographics 194
health issues 157
socio-economic profiles 31, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 42, 43, 44, 44
White-Asian (racial category):
demographics 194
health issues 157
social class and racial identity 68, 69
(p.234) socio-economic profiles 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36,, 37, 38, 38–9, 40, 41, 41, 42, 43, 43, 44, 44, 45, 46–7, 118, 222
White-Black (racial category); socio-economic profiles 30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 41, 42, 42, 43, 43, 44, 44, 45
White-Black multiracial people
social class and racial identity 68, 69, 70, 194 see also White-Black (racial category)
White-Black-American Indian Alaskan Native (racial category); socioeconomic profiles 32, 34, 36
White-Some Other Race (racial category); demographics 194
Whiteness; certificates of in New Spain 18
Williams, D. R. 164
Williams, Rhina Fernandes 7, 123–37, 217
Wong, M.P. 146–7
Woods, Tiger 24, 132
Wright, L. 71
Y
Young, Whitney 104
Z
Zack, Naomi 217