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Active ageingVoluntary work by older people in Europe$

Andrea Principi, Per H. Jensen, and Giovanni Lamura

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9781447307204

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781447307204.001.0001

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(p.343) Index

(p.343) Index

Source:
Active ageing
Publisher:
Policy Press

Note: The following abbreviations have been used – f = figure; n = note; t = table

A
‘active ageing’ 3–4, 5, 6–9, 10, 13, 21, 25, 37, 336, 339
age management and 245, 276, 310–11
culture steering 35
definition 315
England 131, 137
France 167
Netherlands 239
Poland 186–7
Active Ageing and Intergenerational Solidarity, European Year of see European Year of Active Ageing and Intergenerational Solidarity (2012)
Active at 60 Community Agent Programme (England) 133
active attitude: age management 303, 304, 337
active citizenship 4, 5
‘active society’ 3
‘activism’ 59–60, 119, 151–2
‘adult support services’ 266
advocacy groups 155, 156, 159, 202, 208, 211, 329
age
Denmark 72, 76t, 77t, 78, 328
England 125f, 126t, 127t, 128f, 129f, 130, 139
France 154, 155–6, 157t, 163
Germany 97, 98t, 99t, 100, 101, 102t, 105
Italy 51, 52t, 53, 54t, 55t, 56t&f, 57, 58, 62, 65
Netherlands 220, 225, 226t, 227–8, 229, 230f
Poland 179, 180f, 181t, 182f
Sweden 203t, 204t, 205t, 206–7
age balance 262–3, 282, 290, 298–9
age discrimination 5, 8, 28, 31, 59–60, 80
England 121, 124, 131, 132
France 162
Poland 185–6, 190
voluntary organisations 269–72, 273, 274
age management 8, 246, 259, 272, 284, 297–8, 310–12, 332
active attitude 303, 304, 337
future organisational orientations 304–7, 311
organisational desires and government policies 307–10
organisations’ perceptions of future issues 298–302
passive attitude 303, 331
strategies for 261–9
Age UK 133
ageing population 299–301, 310, 315, 330
Ageing Survey (Germany) 97, 98t, 101, 102t, 107
Ageing Well Programme (England) 133
Algemene Bijstandswet (law on social benefits) (Netherlands) 222
Alscher, M. 109
altruistic voluntary work 7, 8, 11, 12, 22, 27
age management and 259, 260t, 281, 283, 295
Denmark 72, 73, 78, 85, 86
England 119, 335
France 150, 336
Germany 94, 96, 101
Italy 47, 58, 60
Netherlands 219, 234, 289–90
Poland 174
Sweden 198, 199, 213
welfare regimes and 322t, 324, 327, 328, 329, 334t
Andersson, P. 208, 211
Anheier, H.K. 36, 37, 48, 65–6
Anxo, D. 210
‘appreciation culture’ 109
Arbo-wet (law on working conditions) (Netherlands) 222
Association of Creative Initiatives (ę) (Poland) 184
Associative Life Survey (National Institute of Statistics) 156, 157t, 158t
Associazione per il volontariato nelle unità locali dei servizi socio sanitari (AVULSS) 254t, 263, 265, 285, 290, 303
Ausbildungspaten 271, 288, 309
B
‘baby-boomers’ 137, 151, 231
Baczko, A. 180f
Baines, S. 139
Bien vieillir (National plan on successful ageing) (2007) (France) 162
‘Big Society’ 34, 35, 134, 141–2
breadwinner wages 235
C
Caltabiano, C. 59–60
Cameron, David 34
Capanna, C. 60
care allowances 63
caregiving see informal family care
Caritas (charity) 108, 109, 250t, 264, 288, 309
cash-for-care 164–5
Catholic Church 49, 59, 108, 109, 155, 220
CBOS (The Public Opinion Research Center) 183t
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek see Statistics Netherlands
Central Statistical Office (GUS) (Poland) 189
Centre for Voluntary Social Work (Denmark) 82
charitable supporting functions 285, 286
Charity Commission (England) 122
charity work 29, 49, 122, 125, 174, 180
childcare 84, 99t, 131, 136, 164, 237
Children's Rights 289, 290
chronological age: stereotypes 5, 8, 28, 80, 131, 185, 190
age management and 259, 270, 273, 274
Citizenship Survey (England) 125, 130
civic engagement 5, 7, 27, 64, 65, 82
France 154
Poland 181
Civil Initiatives Fund (Fundusz Inicjatyw Obywatelskich) (Poland) 175
‘civil society’ 12, 32, 34, 71, 93, 94, 97, 120, 209
Classification of Non-profit Organisations (ICNPO) 14–15
Cliëntenbelang 268
‘clients’: emancipation of 234
closed voluntary organisations 8
Coalition government (England) 34, 35, 133, 134, 141
commercial organisations 12, 23
Community Service Volunteers (CSV) 130–1, 264, 329
community welfare organisations 29
compensation theory 72
comprehensive approach: age management 267–9, 272
conceptual framework 119, 316, 317f
conservatism 24, 320, 321, 334t, 336, 338t
characteristics of 319t
welfare mix 322t, 326t
consumer cooperatives 199
continuity theories 7, 25, 72, 276
corporate social responsibility programmes 106, 135, 152, 164, 236, 270, 285, 286, 295
‘corporatist’ welfare state 149, 217
Council of Public Benefit Activities (Rada Działalnosci Pozżytku Publicznego) (Poland) 177
Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) (France) 153
crowding-out effect 26, 32, 62, 72, 86, 107, 191, 276
cultural sector 29
Denmark 72, 77, 81, 86
England 130, 132
France 155, 156
Germany 95, 100
Italy 53, 54t, 57, 58
Netherlands 220, 227
Poland 178
Sweden 200, 202, 203, 204t
cultural values 36, 206, 318
culture steering 35
D
DanChurchAid 271, 305
DaneAge Association 79–80, 252t, 271, 280, 290, 305
Danish Committee on Volunteer Effort 73
Danish Red Cross 80
De Sario, B. 65
de-commodification 120–1, 318, 324
de-familisation 198, 318, 336, 338
demographic change 3, 8, 166, 210, 238, 275, 280–1, 297
ageing population 299–301, 310, 315, 330
Denmark 71–2, 87n, 285, 302, 338t
age management 305–6
Danish tradition of voluntary action 72–4
employment and volunteering 82–3, 86–7
informal family care and volunteering 83–4, 87
legal framework 74–5
opportunities and restrictions 80–2
participation of older volunteers 78, 79t, 80
supply and demand 84, 85t, 86
voluntary organisations 75, 252–3t, 260t
volunteers by sector, gender and age 76t, 77t, 78
welfare regime 320, 321, 322t, 323, 326t, 333, 334t
‘Denmark 2020’ programme 84
Dgi
North Jutland 252t, 268, 305
‘disengagement’ 5, 6–7, 25, 64, 72, 276
diversity 141
dual breadwinner models 71, 150, 173, 198, 321, 322t, 323, 324
duty of care 123
E
(p.345) early exits 105, 163, 167, 173, 326
educational attainment 55, 57, 59, 78, 81, 85, 297
England 128, 129f, 132
France 156, 160
Germany 100, 102, 103, 108, 110
Netherlands 228
Poland 180, 181t
Sweden 206, 207
educational sector 29, 125, 159, 174, 180, 202
Netherlands 218, 225, 227, 228, 229
egalitarianism 197
Einarsson, T. 202
‘Elberfeld system’ (Germany) 95
eldercare 33, 63, 188–9, 323
Denmark 83, 87
England 132, 136
Germany 93, 106–7, 111
Netherlands 218, 236–7
welfare regimes and 325, 326t
emotional gratification 27, 58
employee volunteer programmes 83, 210, 330, 337
age management 285, 286, 295, 310
England 119, 125, 135, 141
France 164, 166, 168n
Germany 106, 110
welfare regime and 321, 322t, 324
employment 3–4, 26, 276, 301
Denmark 82–3, 86–7
England 123, 124, 129, 131, 134–5, 139
France 150, 162, 163–4, 168
Germany 93, 99, 105–6
Italy 61–2
Netherlands 235, 236f
Poland 173, 187–8
Sweden 210–11
welfare regimes 322t, 323, 325, 326t
‘empowerment of the client’ 234
England 119–21, 139–42, 335, 338t, 339
age discrimination 121, 124, 131, 132
age management 285, 300, 304, 306, 309
employment and volunteering 134–5
English tradition of voluntary action 122–3
informal family care and volunteering 136–7, 289, 290
legal framework 123–4
supply and demand 137–9
opportunities and restrictions 131–4
participation of older volunteers 129–31
voluntary organisations 124, 125, 248–9t, 260t, 268, 270, 329
volunteers by sector, gender and age 125f, 126t, 127t, 128f, 129f
welfare regime 320, 322t, 325, 326t, 334t
English Waterways 268
Enquete Commission (‘The future of civic commitment’) (Germany) 94, 104
equality 141
Equality Act (2010) (England) 121
Ericson, T. 210
Espace Bénévolat 161
Esping-Andersen, G. 37–8, 217, 318
ethnicity 206–7
EU Year of Volunteering (2011) 4
Eurobarometer 106, 183t, 223
European Commission 5–6
European Council of Lisbon 308
European Older People's Platform (AGE) 4–5, 21
European Social Survey (ESS) 179, 183t, 188
European Structural Fund 175
European Union (EU) 3, 4, 6, 34, 121, 175 see also under individual countries
European Union Year of Volunteering (2011) 21, 133, 166
European Year of Active Ageing and Intergenerational Solidarity (2012) 4, 21, 61, 162, 315
Eurostat 82, 105, 180f
Evans, E. 137
exit policies 3, 105, 163, 167, 173, 267, 272, 326
Experience Corps (England) 133
F
Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Federal Ministry of (BMFSFJ) (Germany) 104
family forms 33–4, 63, 188, 321, 322t, 323
Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ) (Germany) 104
Federation of Rural Women 225
‘fixed-term project’ 306–7
flexibility 31, 121, 135, 140–1, 186, 208, 332
age management and 265–6, 272, 280, 285, 306, 312
Fondazione Roma Terzo Settore 54
for-profit organisations 152
formal voluntary work see volunteers and voluntary work
Forum 50+ Seniors of the 21st Century (Poland) 184
France 149–51, 167–8, 280, 285, 320, 321, 335, 338t, 339
employment and volunteering 163–4
family forms 324
French tradition of voluntary action 151–3
informal family care and volunteering 164–5
legal framework 153–4
supply and demand 165–6
opportunities and restrictions 160–2
(p.346) participation of older volunteers 157, 158t, 159–60, 336
voluntary organisations 154–5, 257–8t, 260t, 266, 268, 269, 329–30
volunteers by sector, gender and age 155–6, 157t
welfare regime 326t, 334t
France Bénévolat 161
Fridberg, T. 76t
Frisanco, R. 58–9, 60, 64
functionalism 32
funding 175–6, 200, 291, 292, 295
economic crisis and 302, 311
England 122–3, 134, 142, 335
France 152–3, 155, 336
Germany 309
Netherlands 218, 221, 238
Fundusz Inicjatyw Obywatelskich (Civil Initiatives Fund) (Poland) 175
G
Gallagher, S.K. 167
gender 26, 279, 323
Denmark 76t, 77t, 78
England 125f, 126t, 127t, 128f, 129f
France 155–6, 157t, 165
Germany 93, 97, 98t, 99t, 100, 102t
informal family care 47, 62–3
Italy 53, 54t, 55t, 56t&f, 57
Netherlands 225, 226t, 227–8, 229, 230f, 235
Poland 179, 180f, 181t
retirement 61
Sweden 203t, 204t, 205t, 206–7
Gensicke, T. 99t
Germany 93–4, 109–11, 335, 338t, 339
age management 306, 308, 309
employment and volunteering 105–6
German tradition of voluntary action 94–6
informal family care and volunteering 106–7, 288
legal framework 96–7
opportunities and restrictions 102t, 103–4
participation of older volunteers 100, 101t, 102t
supply and demand 108–9
voluntary organisations 97, 249–50t, 260t, 270
volunteers by sector, gender and age 97, 98t, 99t, 100
welfare regime 320, 321, 322t, 326t, 327, 334t
Giddens, A. 217
Gilde Zeist 247t, 282
Giving in the Netherlands (GIN) 224t
‘government failure’ 32, 34
government-led initiatives 132–3, 139, 141–2, 235
grandparenting 84, 162, 184, 237, 287, 293, 301, 302
Grano, C. 64
greeting groups 268–9
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 48, 71, 83, 93, 142n, 150, 174, 197, 219
gross value added (GVA) 119, 142n
H
Hardill, I. 139
Hatamian, A. 133–4
Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, Survey of (SHARE) 6
health and safety 123, 222
healthcare sectors 29, 294
Denmark 77, 78, 81, 86
England 130
France 151, 155
Italy 53, 54t, 57, 65
Netherlands 227, 304
Poland 178, 180
Sweden 202
Herbst, J. 179f
Heritage Plus project 264
Home Office (England) 133
Horecawet (law on catering) (Netherlands) 222
hospice volunteers 30
Housewives’ Circles 185
housing associations 206
human resources management (HRM) 261
Hutchison, R. 131, 132
I
Ibsen, B. 81
immigrants 206–7
incentives 31, 35, 36, 103
‘inclusiveness’ 121, 141
individualisation 197, 218, 235, 283
informal family care 10, 12, 25, 26, 33, 330
age management and 276, 288–92, 293, 295, 297, 301, 310
Denmark 83–4, 87
England 121, 125, 136–7, 140
France 156, 164–5
Germany 99, 106–7, 109, 111
Italy 47, 62–4, 65
Netherlands 236–7, 233
organisational perceptions 287–8
Poland 188–9, 191
social care provision by voluntary organisations and 288–92
Sweden 211, 213
welfare regimes 321, 323, 325, 326t
informal voluntary work see volunteers and voluntary work
information and communications technology (ICT) 234, 265, 304, 308
(p.347) institutional choice 24, 32
insurance 96–7
Integrationslotsen 250t, 271
interdependence theory 32
intergenerational culture 309, 312
intergenerational exchange 264–5, 272, 332
‘Intergenerational voluntary services’ (Germany) 104, 108, 111
International Labour Organization (ILO) 11
International Organisation of Good Templars (IOGT) 199
International Year of Volunteers (United Nations) (2001) 21
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT) (Italy) 52t, 59
Italy 37, 47–8, 65–6, 335, 338t
age management 261, 264, 285, 303, 308, 309, 310
employment and volunteering 61–2
informal family care and volunteering 62–4, 288, 289, 290
Italian tradition of voluntary action 49–50
legal framework 50–1
opportunities and restrictions for volunteering 59–61
participation of older volunteers 57f, 58–9
supply and demand 64–5
voluntary organisations 52t, 53, 254–5t, 260t, 329–30
volunteers by sector, gender and age 53, 54t, 55t, 56t&f, 57
welfare regime 320, 322t, 326t, 334t
J
Jegermalm, M. 209, 210
Jeppsson-Grassman, E. 37, 209, 210
Johns Hopkins Comparative Non-profit Sector Project 149, 204, 205
K
Ketteler, Wilhelm Emmanuel 95
Koch-Nielsen, I. 75
L
labour market
age management 8, 246, 259, 261–9, 293, 295, 330, 338
Denmark 71, 82–3, 86
England 121, 140
exclusion from 26
France 150, 159, 163
Germany 99
Italy 47, 61, 309
Netherlands 218, 219, 231, 235
Poland 177, 190
Sweden 197–8, 212
volunteering and 32–3, 278–84, 301, 309–10
welfare regimes and 323
Labour and Social Policies, Ministry of (Italy) 61
late exit: labour market 3
Law 73–2002 (social modernisation) (France) 153
Law 133/2008 (retirement) (Italy) 51
Law 214/2011 (Italy) 51
Law 240–2010 (civic service) (France)153–4
Law 266–1991 (Register of voluntary organisations) (Italy) 50, 52, 285
Law 383–2000 (social promotion associations) (Italy) 50–1
Law on Public Benefit Activity and Volunteerism (2003) (Poland) 177
Law on Social Service (Denmark) 74–5
leadership positions 158, 159, 167
Leeson, G. 79t
legal framework 24, 34–5
Denmark 74–5
England 122, 123–4
France 153–4
Germany 96–7
Italy 50–1
Netherlands 222–3, 224, 225
Poland 176–7, 183
Sweden 201
liability 222
liberal-residual regime 173, 320
liberalism 24, 217, 320, 321, 334t, 336, 338t
characteristics of 319t
cultural orientations and 326t
England 120, 121
welfare mix 322t
lifelong learning 308
‘lighthouse projects’ (Germany) 104
LinkAge Plus (England) 133
loss of status 161
low-threshold measures 108
Lundström, T. 198, 199
M
male breadwinner/female carer family model 47, 93, 100, 111, 121, 321, 322t, 323
management practices 31
‘market failure’ 32, 34
match-making: labour markets 212
mécénat de compétences (skills’ sponsorship) 168
Mediterranean welfare regime 24, 47, 66, 320, 323, 334t, 336
characteristics of 319t
cultural orientations and 326t
policy challenges 338t
welfare mix 322t
men
Denmark 76t, 77, 78, 81, 82
England 121, 128, 130, 136
France 156, 157, 159, 283
Germany 93, 99, 100, 101, 102t, 105, 107, 108
informal family care 290
(p.348) Italy 54, 55t, 56f, 57f
Netherlands 219, 226t, 227, 228, 229, 230f, 231, 235, 236, 239
Poland 180, 189
retirement 61, 65
Sweden 198, 203t, 204, 206, 207, 210, 211
methodology 13–16
migrant care workers 47, 63
Minister for Social Affairs (Denmark) 73
Ministry of Labour and Social Policies (Italy) 61
Ministry of Welfare (Denmark) 74–5
Mirabile, M.L. 64–5
‘mixed economy of welfare’ 122
motivation 79t, 85t, 159, 160–1, 163–4, 184, 301, 312
multiple time horizons 140
multiple volunteering 125, 280
N
National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NCVO) (England) 124
National Institute of Statistics (INSEE) 156, 157t, 158t
National Institute for Statistics (Italy) see Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT) (Italy)
National plan on successful ageing (Bien vieillir) (France) 162
national profile descriptions 13–14
National Strategy for the Promotion of Volunteering (Germany) 104
National Volunteering Service for all Generations (Germany) 104
Netherlands 217–20, 239–40, 280, 285, 291–2, 338t
age management 304, 307, 308
Dutch tradition of voluntary action 220–2
employment and volunteering 235, 236f
informal family care and volunteering 236–7, 289–90
legal framework 222–3
opportunities and restrictions 233–5
participation 223, 224t, 229, 230f, 231, 232t, 233
supply and demand 237–9
voluntary organisations 224–5, 232, 247–8t, 260t, 267, 268
volunteers by sector, gender and age 225, 226t, 227–8, 229
welfare regime 320, 321, 322t, 325, 326t, 327, 333, 334t
Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP) 234
New Labour (England) 132–3
new public management (NPM) 198
‘new volunteering style’ 304, 312
Nivon 269
non-governmental organisations 176, 177, 186, 187, 191, 221
non-participation 27, 80, 103
non-profit organisations/associations 12, 22–3
England 120
France 149, 150, 152, 154
Italy 49, 52t, 54
Poland 174
Sweden 201
non-profit scale 37
O
Ogrocka, A. 180f
older people
perceived advantages and disadvantages 28–9, 31
societal contribution 9
strengths and weaknesses 28
as volunteers 4, 25–7
Older Volunteer Initiative (Home Office) (England) 133
Olsson, L. 204t, 207
open voluntary organisations 8
organisational perspective 14
P
paedophilia 74
paid staff 50, 53, 61, 73, 261, 271, 273, 294
Denmark 305
England 119, 124, 125
France 152, 155
Netherlands 219, 221, 224, 231
Poland 176, 178, 186
Sweden 197, 202
part-time workers 26, 33
participation 5, 8, 301, 315, 338
barriers to 80, 84–5
Denmark 78, 79t, 80
England 124, 125, 129–31, 135, 141, 142n
France 157, 158t, 159–60, 167
Germany 94, 100, 101t, 102
Italy 57f, 58–9
Netherlands 219, 223, 224t, 229, 230f, 231, 232t, 233, 239
Poland 173, 174, 177, 181, 182f, 183t, 184–5
policies and policymaking 333, 334t, 335–6
Sweden 201, 207–8, 209
participatory democracy 151–2, 209
partnerships 152, 166, 320
Partnerships for Older People Projects (England) 133
Passerelles et Compétences 161
passive attitude: age management 303, 331
Passport for active retirement (France) 162
pensioners’ organisations 206, 207
pensions 3, 7, 65, 235, 303
(p.349) France 163–4, 166
Poland 173, 186, 187, 191
people engagement cycle 267–8, 273, 332
personal growth 6, 27
Petits Frères des Pauvres 258t, 266, 268
philanthropy see altruistic voluntary work
pillarisation 220–1, 320
PKN 268
Poland 173–4, 190–1, 309, 323, 335, 338t
employment and volunteering 187–8
family forms 324, 326
informal family care and volunteering 188–9, 288
legal framework 176–7
supply and demand 189–90
opportunities and restrictions 185–7
participation of older volunteers 181, 182f, 183t, 184–5
Polish tradition of voluntary action 174–6
voluntary organisations 178, 179, 256–7t, 260t, 265
volunteers by sector, gender and age 179, 180f, 181t
welfare regime 320, 322t, 326t, 327, 334t
policies and policymaking 22, 24, 291–2, 294, 312, 315–16
England 120, 121, 122, 132, 139
enhancing volunteering in older age 330, 336–7, 338t, 339–40
France 150, 151, 152, 162, 163, 164, 167
Germany 94, 95, 104, 108–9, 110
Italy 60–1, 64–5
Netherlands 239
participation and 333, 334t, 335–6
Poland 173, 187, 190
supporting volunteering 34–6
transferability of 9–10, 11
Polish Association of Retired Persons,
Pensioners and the Disabled 185
Polish Seniors in Action 309
political interests 81, 175, 227, 228
political perceptions 308
popular mass movements 199, 200
post-communism / socialism 24, 320, 322t, 336, 338t
characteristics of 319t
cultural orientations 326t
impact of policies 334t see also socialism pre-retirement courses 135, 163
Principi, A. 60, 83
private profit-making organisations 120
‘productive ageing’ 6
‘productivity hurdle’ 301
professionalisation 261, 273, 274, 284, 291–2, 294, 301, 331
France 152, 162, 166, 168
Netherlands 234
Poland 175, 191
project work 306–7
‘prototypical volunteers’ 327–8
Przewłocka, J. 179f, 180f, 183t
‘public care’ society 83
public funding 49, 50–1
Public Opinion Research Center, The (CBOS) 183t
public service contracts 285
‘putting something back’ 131, 137, 270
Q
‘quality’ of volunteers 293, 294, 305, 308, 329
R
Rada Działalnosci Pozẓytku Publicznego (Council of Public Benefit Activities) (Poland) 177
recipient 21–2
recognition 307, 312, 336
recreational sector 29
Denmark 72, 77, 78, 81, 86
England 119, 130, 132
France 155, 156, 159
Germany 93, 95, 99t, 100, 101t, 110
Italy 53, 54t, 57, 58
Netherlands 225, 227
Poland 174, 178, 180
Sweden 199, 202, 208
recruitment 30, 64, 108
age management 261–4, 272, 273, 290, 293–4, 299, 302, 331, 332
Denmark 305
England 137, 139
Sweden 208, 211
‘recruitment–engagement cycle’ 32
redeployment 265–6, 272, 332
Register of voluntary organisations (Law 266–1991) (Italy) 50
registration: voluntary organisations 50, 73–4, 224
‘released’ older generation 94
religiosity 29, 36, 81, 93, 99t, 101t, 103, 156, 174
England 122, 129, 130
Netherlands 220, 227
Poland 180, 185
Sweden 199, 200, 207–8
Report on the situation and perspectives of civic commitment in Germany (Alscher) 109
retention programmes 30–1, 108, 137, 208
age management 265–6, 267–8, 272, 300, 332
Retired Persons, Pensioners and the Disabled, Polish Association of 185
Retired Senior Volunteer Programme (RSVP) 130–1, 329
retirement 26, 33, 295, 297, 301, 323, 333
Denmark 72, 83
England 130, 135, 138, 139
(p.350) France 157–8, 159, 160–2, 167, 168n, 280
Germany 97, 100, 105, 106
Italy 51, 61, 62, 64, 65, 310
labour market and 279, 282, 285
Netherlands 228, 231–2, 233, 235, 237–8, 239
Poland 173, 185–6
Sweden 210, 213
Retraite Sportive 266, 267, 268, 280, 283–4
Rochester, C. 119, 130, 131, 132
role specification 31
Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) 248t, 285, 306
rural areas 75, 81, 155, 156, 225, 228
‘rush hour of life’ 227
S
safeguarding 74, 123
Salamon, L.M. 36, 37, 48, 65–6
Saxton, J. 137
scarcity theory 26, 276
Schimanek, T. 189
Scout Association, The 249t, 265, 266, 267, 270, 287, 302, 306
sector of activity 247–58t
Denmark 76t, 77t, 78
England 125f, 126t, 127t, 128f, 129f
France 155–6, 157t
Germany 97, 98t, 99t, 100
Italy 54t, 55t
Netherlands 225, 226t, 227–8, 229
Poland 179, 180f, 181t, 183t
Sweden 203t, 204t, 205t, 206–7
self-help 95, 101
self-oriented/-expressive voluntary work 7, 8, 9–10, 12, 26–7, 259, 260t, 316, 335
Denmark 72, 73–4, 78, 79, 84, 86
England 119–20, 131
France 150, 152, 336
Germany 94, 96, 101, 102, 110
Italy 47–8, 50, 65
Netherlands 219
Poland 174
Sweden 198, 204, 212
welfare regimes and 322t, 324, 327, 328, 333, 334t
self-referential activities 103
Seniorpartner 271
Seniors in Action (Poland) 184
Seniors and citizenship (CESE) 163, 166
‘serious leisure’ 119–20
‘service-oriented’ voluntary work 47, 333
servizio civile (Italy) 51
‘shortening’ effect 281–2
siblings 237
six-regime model 37
sobriety movement 199, 200
Social Affairs, Minister for (Denmark) 73
social care sectors 29, 294
Denmark 77, 78, 81, 86
England 125, 130
France 151, 155, 159
Germany 93, 100, 101t
Italy 53, 54t, 57, 65
Netherlands 218, 220
Poland 178, 180
Sweden 198, 202
type of welfare regime and 321
social democracy 24, 220, 320, 321, 333, 335, 336
characteristics of 319t
Denmark 86
impact of policies 334t, 338t
Italy 65–6
Netherlands 217
Sweden 198
welfare mix 322t, 326t
Social Democratic Party (Sweden) 197
Social and Economic Council (CESE) (France) 166
‘social enterprise model’ 9
social networking 3, 4, 22, 27, 84, 103, 208, 238
France 159, 161
Italy 60, 61
social origin theory 36, 37, 48, 65
social promotion associations (Law 383-2000) (Italy) 50–1
social responsibility movement 106, 135, 152, 164
social security systems 109, 110, 123, 149, 199–200, 222
Social Service Act (Denmark) 82
social structuralism 22, 23t, 24–5
social utility 164, 167, 168
socialism 49, 173, 185, 190, 197 see also post-communism / socialism
Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) (Germany) 97, 98t, 101
socio-economic status 59, 62, 80–1, 156, 186, 206, 228, 327
England 128–9
Germany 103, 106, 108
‘Solidarity across Generations’ (Poland) 187
Solidarity (trade union) 176
sponsorship 285, 286
‘sporadically active’ 101
Statistics Netherlands (Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek) (CBS) 223, 224t, 225, 226t, 230f
Statistics Sweden 200, 201, 202
(p.351) Stowarzyszenie Klon/Jawor 179, 180
subsidiarity 95–6, 152, 218, 221
‘successful ageing’ 6
succession planning 267, 272, 307
supply and demand 165–6, 189–90, 211–12, 299, 330
Denmark 84, 85t, 86
England 137–9
organisational perspective 316, 318, 325, 328–32
Germany 108–9, 110
Italy 64–5
Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) 6, 62, 98t, 103, 107, 164
Poland 182, 183t, 188, 189, 191n
sustainability 309, 335
Svedberg, L. 198, 201, 206, 209
Sweden 37, 197–8, 212–13, 338t
age management 304
employment and volunteering 210–11
informal family care and volunteering 211, 288, 289, 290
legal framework 201
opportunities and restrictions 209
participation of older volunteers 207–8
supply and demand 211–12
Swedish tradition of voluntary action 199–200
voluntary organisations 200, 202, 250–1, 260t, 271–2, 329–30
volunteers by sector, gender and age 203t, 204t, 205t, 206–7
welfare regime 320, 321, 322t, 323, 326t, 333, 334t
Swedish Mission Association 199
Swedish Mission Covenant 304
Swedish National Pensioners’ Organisation (PRO) 208
Swedish Pensioners’ Association (SPF) 208
T
targeted qualification measures 108
Tax rule 170–1998: social utility of associations (France) 153
taxation 50, 74, 123, 139, 153, 223
England 123, 139
Germany 96, 110
Poland 175–6, 177
Sweden 199–200, 201
Taylor, P. 272
Tchernonog, V. 154–5
Tenants Association Aalborg 252t, 302–3
Third Age Universities 184–5
third sector see voluntary organizations
Third Sector Forum (Italy) 49
‘third way’ 217
Thomas, B. 130, 132
Thompson, E. 85
Time Budget Survey and Prognos’ Commitment atlas 98t
‘time credits’ 110
time usage 78, 100, 158t, 180, 300, 305
Netherlands 219, 227, 235, 239
Sweden 204, 207
Time Use Studies (SCP) (Netherlands) 224t
Time Use Survey 107
time-competition effect 164
trade unions 58, 149, 176, 199, 206, 227, 228, 271–2
training 30, 31, 110, 208, 332
age management and 265, 268, 272, 301, 308, 310, 312
England 138, 139
France 162, 166
Italy 64, 65
U
unemployment 173, 184, 212, 281, 303, 309
England 122
France 150, 164
Netherlands 217–18, 228, 235
Unione Italiana Sport per Tutti (UISP) 255t, 303
United Nations (UN) 21, 34
United States 4, 6, 7, 34
UNITRE 264
universities of the third age 58
UNIVOC 264
urbanisation 75, 81, 95, 152, 178, 225, 228, 229t
utility-based decision-making 27
V
Veneto Law 9/2010 (Voluntary Service) (Italy) 51
visibility 307, 312, 330
voice-to-service ratio 204, 205, 206, 212
voluntary organisations 11, 14–16, 59, 245–6, 275–8, 337–8
active ageing and 22, 28–32, 35, 37–8
age balance 262–3
by-product of the state 32
characteristics of 245–6, 259, 260t
conclusion of volunteer relationship 31–2
definition of 12
distribution of 53
meeting business needs and social objectives 284–7
opinions of volunteers 269–72, 273, 274
organisational needs 330–1
perceptions of informal family care 277–8, 287–8
recruitment and management strategies 5, 6, 7, 8, 23–4, 29–31, 64, 65, 108, 137, 298
size of 53
social care provision 288–92
(p.352) welfare mix and 32 see also under individual countries
Voluntary Organisations, National Council for (NCVO) (England) 124
Voluntary Service (servizio civile) (Italy) 51, 53
‘Voluntary services of all generations’ (Germany) 104
Voluntary Social Work, Centre for (Denmark) 82
volunteer centres 36, 161
volunteer cycle 267
Volunteer Effort, Danish Committee on 73
Volunteer Fire Brigades (Poland) 178, 185
volunteer programmes see employee volunteer programmes
Volunteer Survey (Germany) 97, 98t, 99, 100, 101
Volunteering, EU Year of (2011) 4
Volunteering, National Strategy for the Promotion of (Germany) 104
Volunteering in the Third Age (VITA) (England) 133
Volunteerism, Law on Public Benefit Activity and (2003) (Poland) 177
volunteers and volunteering 7, 35–6, 103
by sector 53, 54t, 55t, 56t&f, 57
competing commitments 295–6
complexity of factors for 10–11, 22, 26–7
conceptual framework 119, 316, 317f
definitions of 11–12, 21–2, 49, 176, 177
individual dispositions 316, 325, 326t, 327–8
information on 308–9, 312
main barriers in old age 270–2
strengths of 331–2
vrijwilligerswerk.startpagina.nl (voluntary work start page) (Netherlands) 225
W
Walker, A. 272
Warburton, J. 37
WEA 304, 306
Welfare, Ministry of (Denmark) 74–5
welfare mix 22, 23t, 24, 25, 32–4, 36, 37, 295
employment and 275–6, 277
Germany 94, 110, 111
impact on volunteering by older people 316, 321, 322t, 323–5, 327, 328–9
welfare regimes 9, 22, 23t, 24–5, 36–8, 120, 121, 173
altruistic voluntary work 322t, 324, 327, 328, 329, 334t
employment and 322t, 323, 325, 326t
impact of policies 334t
individual cultural orientations 326t
main characteristics 316, 317f, 318, 319t, 320–1 see also under individual countries
welfare state 8–9, 10, 11, 33
Denmark 71, 72, 73, 74, 83–4, 86
France 149
Germany 94, 96
Italy 47, 48, 49
Netherlands 217, 238, 239
well-being 4, 6, 238, 272, 300, 315, 316
active ageing 22, 25, 27, 31, 59, 103
England 120, 132, 139, 141
France 160
Poland 173
Sweden 208
Werder 249t, 306
Wet Maatschappelijke Ondersteuning (law on social support) (Netherlands) 222
Wijkström, F. 199, 202
Williams, C.C. 71
Wilson, L. 85
Windebank, J. 71
women 281, 293, 301, 323
Denmark 76t, 77, 78, 81, 82
England 121, 128, 130, 136, 140
France 156, 157, 159, 164, 165, 283
Germany 93, 99, 100, 101, 102t, 105, 107, 108, 284
informal family care 47, 62, 63, 288, 290
Italy 54, 55t, 56f, 57, 284
motherhood and 302
Netherlands 218, 219, 226t, 227, 228, 230f, 233, 235, 236, 239
percentage of volunteers 246–58t, 259, 260t
Poland 173, 180, 189, 191, 324
retirement 61, 65
Sweden 197, 198, 203t, 204, 206, 207, 210, 211, 266
Women's Royal Voluntary Service (WRVS) 130, 249t, 262, 264, 267, 273, 306, 307
informal family care 287, 289, 290
worker mutual aid societies 151
World Health Organization (WHO) 3, 4, 6
Y
Year of Volunteering (2011) (European Union) 21, 133, 166, 315
younger volunteers 139, 154, 181, 200
age management 262–3, 264, 265, 270, 273, 281, 299
altruistic volunteering 329
Denmark 73–4, 79, 86, 305
Italy 53, 303