Recent research has shown profound impacts of institutional settings of education systems on educational inequalities, i.e. systematic disadvantages and advantages in education being structured by characteristics like class, gender, ethnicity, (dis)ability and their intersections. The main education system characteristics which have been identified as driving forces are stratification (tracking), standardisation and vocational specificity. The text centres on questions of how and via which social factors and processes these characteristics of education systems produce inequalities – not only in educational attainment but also in status attainment and life chances. The first part of the book comprises contributions that focus on theory and methods to examine the effects of educational systems on educational inequalities. The second part contains works on the influences of social attributes on educational attainment in terms of competencies or credentials. The third and last part of the book centres on social inequalities in educational returns while including both job related factors (job prestige, income, etc.) and nonmonetary educational returns (health, well-being, etc.). Finally, a discussion on “good” and “bad” education systems centres on the question of how an ideal education system could look like.