This chapter presents the objectives and content of China's education before the economic reforms. It also covers the development of China's post-reform education policies in terms of basic education, vocational education and higher education, and the development of private education. In addition, the impact of China's education reforms on the well-being of students and their families is reported. China has achieved great strides in educational development. Since the late 1990s, a new education policy orientation has been fostered by the government to counter the culture of examination-centred education. To some extent, the development of China's education system has damaged education equality, just as China's economic prosperity has been achieved at the expense of social equity and environmental quality. The introduction of fees and the adoption of multiple channels of funding have diminished central and local governments' responsibilities for education financing and have increased school autonomy.
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