This chapter explores the key features and structure of the Chinese healthcare system in 1978. It also examines China's healthcare initiatives after 1978, including change in the nature of hospital management and ownership, the introduction of the medical insurance scheme for urban workers and the building of a New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme. Furthermore, the impact of Chinese government medical reforms on the well-being of patients is considered. The present health services in China have become hospital-oriented, and the link between clinics and hospitals is now relatively weak. It is noted that the development of health services was shaped by the Chinese government's approach to the privatisation and decentralisation of social policy. The Chinese government is also taking a more active role in correcting the deficiencies of market forces and making more investments in public health.
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