This chapter gathers a number of threads and raises some general issues for future research and policy making. It first reflects on the challenges and then expands on the fresh perspectives that are believed to contribute to the understandings of gendered citizenship in Europe. The chapter specifically provides a fresh perspective on the study of gendered citizenship by bringing together the issues of childcare, migration, and global relations. The implications for gendered citizenship are mixed. The complicated relationship between multiculturalism and gender equality illustrates the point that citizenship operates simultaneously as an inclusionary and exclusionary force, and that the processes of exclusion within and at the borders of nation states intersect. The interconnections that have been demonstrated between the growing dominance of an adult-worker model across Europe, childcare policies, and migration in a global context, have implications for policy within individual member states.
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