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The changing face of welfareConsequences and outcomes from a citizenship perspective$

Jorgen Goul Andersen, Anne-Marie Guillemard, Per H. Jensen, and Birgit Pfau-Effinger

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9781861345929

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781861345929.001.0001

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(p.273) Index

(p.273) Index

Source:
The changing face of welfare
Publisher:
Policy Press

Page references for notes are followed by n

A
Abel-Smith, B. 20
Aberg, R. 206
Abrahamson, P. 39, 124, 140, 142, 151
Acheson, Sir D. 26
Acker, J. 172
activation vii, 4, 8–9, 113–15, 135–6, 146–7, 269
and citizenship 80, 116–19, 151–3, 263–5
Denmark 138–46
Europe 137
France 119–29
ideal-types 115–16
national and institutional contexts 138
participation 5–6
plans and contracts 156–60
US 136
active citizenship vii, 7–8, 87–8, 175, 189–90, 262–3, 268, 270
and activation 263–5
and care 190–1, 265–6
carer and worker citizen model 195–7
and early retirement 266–8
worker and carer citizen model 191–3
administrative citizenship 9, 162–4
agency 170
Agulnik, P. 22
Alcock, P. 20
Almond, G.A. 82, 90n
ALMP (active labour-market policy) vii, 18–19, 114, 115, 136, 139
Amsterdam Declaration on Social Quality 49
Amsterdam Treaty 103, 179
Andersen, J. 75, 90n
Andersen, J.G. 4, 19, 75, 80, 83, 261, 263
Andersen, N.A. 152, 153
Anderson, B. 97
Anheier, H. 105
Anttonen, A. 190
Arber, S. 210
Archibugi, D. 105
Aristotle 94
Arrowsmith, J. 225
Asfa, C. 131n
asset-based welfare 69–70, 71, 269–70
Atkinson, A.B. 24, 27, 38, 42
Aubert, V. 251
Auer, P. 139, 225
Australia 136
Austria
activation 138
flexible employment 62
life-long education 63, 65
B
Bach, H.B. 145, 146
Bachelier, C. 116
Balzter, N. 138
Barbier, J.-C. 2, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 128, 137, 151
Barry, B. 101
Bauman, Z. 158
Beardwell, I. 157
Beck, U. 7, 59, 60, 158, 172, 184n
Beck, W. 27, 44, 46, 47, 48
Belgium
flexible employment 62
gender equality 173
inactivity rates 63, 64
life-long education 65
Bell, C. 26
Bellamy, R. 170, 179
Belorgey, J.M. 126
Benhabib, S. 97, 105
Berg Sorensen, T. 144
Berger, P. 93
Berghman, J. 20, 75, 84, 85
Bergqvist, C. 171, 173, 178, 184n
Berlin, I. 100
Bessin, M. 59–60
Best, F. 58
Birnbaum, P. 116
Blanpain, N. 131n
Blekesaune, M. 208, 219n
Bobbio, N. 95, 100
Boll, J. 155
Boltanski, L. 68
Bolvig, I. 142
(p.274) Borchorst, A. 171, 172, 179, 182, 184n
Born, A.W. 84, 85, 161
Bosch, G. 61
Bouget, D. 242
Bourdieu, P. 162
Boye, T. 173
Braun, T. 143, 144
Bredgaard, T. 124
Brogaard, S. 143, 154
Bryson, L. 21
Burchell, B. 206
Bussemaker, J. 170
Bytheway, B. 227
C
Calloni, M. 95, 98, 101, 107
Campbell, A. 82
Campbell, N. 224, 228
care 9–10, 173–4, 176–7, 182, 259, 262, 265
citizen worker and state as carer model 190–1
and welfare regimes 193–7
welfare state policies and social practices 197–200
worker and carer citizen model 191–3
Carstens, A. 154
Casey, B. 206, 207, 225, 226
Castel, R. 55, 68
Castells, M. 35, 59
Caswell, D. 143, 155
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the Union, The 103–4
Chiapello, E. 68
childcare see care
Christensen, T.Q. 155
citizenship 2, 3, 75–7, 88–9, 95–6, 189–90, 257, 2611–13
and activation 113, 114, 116–19, 120, 129–30, 151–3
active 87–8
administrative 162–4
analytical levels 4–6
citizen worker and state as carer model 190–1
cultural and structural changes 6–8
European 101–6, 179
and gender equality 169–70, 183
globalisation, governance and cosmopolitanism 105–8
and multiculturalism 97
new approaches 8–10
poverty and social exclusion 83–5
rights 205
and social inclusion 44, 85–7
specification 79–83
and unemployment 77–9
and welfare regimes 193–7
worker and carer citizen model 191–3
civicness 4, 76, 82–3, 152
Clark, Burton 15
Clasen, J. 15, 80
class 76, 77
Clement, S.L. 155, 219n
Cliff, D.R. 227
Cohen, J. 100
Cohen, Stan 27
Cohen-Solal, M. 130n
Colbert, Jean Baptiste 21
Coles, Robert 24–5
Commission of the European Communities (CEC) see European Commission
Cook, D. 16
Cooper, C.L. 230–1
cosmopolitanism 107–8
Cousins, C. 192
culture 93–101, 198–9
D
Daly, M. 191, 192, 197
Daniel, C. 122
Daune-Richard, A.-M. 173, 182, 184n, 196, 199
De Grip, A. 62
Deacon, B. 37
Dean, H. 16
Dean, J. 183
decommodification vii, 7, 80, 172, 189, 207
defamilisation 176, 177
Deleuze, G. 160
Demazière, D. 122, 125
demographic changes 35–6
Denmark 161
activation 113, 118, 124, 127–8, 137, 138–47
care 177
citizenship 89n
early retirement 206, 207, 208
early retirement and well-being 10, 209–10, 211, 212, 214–16, 217, 218n
flexible employment 62
gender equality 182, 184n
inactivity rates 63, 64
individual action plans 9, 151–64, 264
(p.275) life-long education 63, 65, 66
social expenditure 39
Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) 16
Derrida, J. 106
Dex, Shirley 197
Diamantopoulou, A. 41
discourses vii, 4–5
Doeringer, P. 67
Donzelot, J. 47
Dropping, J.A. 137, 244
dual breadwinner model 173, 175, 183–4n, 199, 200
Durkheim, E. 6
Dworkin, R. 77
Dwyer, P. 79
E
early retirement 10, 205, 206
and active citizenship 266–8
and marginalisation 227–34, 235–6
Nordic countries 206–18
Ebsen, F. 144, 155
economic citizenship 162–3
Edelman, Murray 19
Eder, K. 93
education 63, 65
efficacy 82
Ellingsaeter, A. 199, 200
employment
and citizenship 77
and life course 55, 58
work time 61–2
empowerment vii, 76, 78–9, 263, 268–9
social quality 45, 46, 47, 49
equality 169
Eriksson, L. 244
Esch, K. 194
Eskelinen, L. 143
Esping-Andersen, G. 1, 5, 7, 69, 78, 80, 89n, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 183n, 189, 193–4, 223, 242, 268
Etzioni, A. 184n
European citizenship 179
European Commission
activation 17–18, 135, 138, 139, 141, 146
gender equality 169
governance 106–7
privatisation 22, 51
social exclusion 35–6, 84
social-movement organisations 242
social policy 40, 41, 42
social quality 40, 45–6
European Council
Laeken 42, 50
Lisbon 38, 40, 41, 171
European Employment Observatory 137
European employment strategy (EES) viii, 114, 139, 146
European Foundation 137
European social model 33–5, 50–1, 259
social quality 43–50
European Union
activation 135, 137
active ageing 267–8
citizenship 101–6
gender equality 171, 179–80, 183
social policy 40–3, 41
social protection 17–18
Europeanisation 171, 179–80, 183, 184n
Evandrou, M. 36
Ewald, F. 69
Eydal, G.B. 196
F
fairness 23
Fargion, V. 119
Ferge, Z. 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 51
Ferrera, M. 1
Finland
childcare 191, 197–8, 199
early retirement 206, 207, 208, 225, 267
early retirement and well-being 10, 209–10, 211, 212, 214–16, 217, 218n
flexible employment 62
inactivity rates 63, 64
life-long education 63, 65
social expenditure 39
flexible employment 62
Fortunay, M. 225
Foucault, M. 159, 164n
Fowler, Norman 234
France
activation 114, 116, 118, 119–29, 130
childcare 194, 195, 197, 199
citizenship 89n
early retirement 207
flexible employment 62
gender equality 173, 178, 181–2
inactivity rates 64
life-long education 65
social citizenship 116–17
Fraser, N. 100, 177, 182, 184n, 243
French Revolution 94, 95
Fukuda-Parr, S. 99
G
Gallie, D. 15, 81, 138, 206, 223, 263
Garrett, G. 258
Gautié, J. 115
Gazier, B. 115
Geddes, M. 96
Geerdsen, L.P. 142
Geissler, B. 2, 7, 190, 192, 193, 195, 199
gender equality 169–71, 265–6
in democratic politics 178–9
and social care 179–83
towards a new model 175–8
welfare state restructuring and globalisation 171–5
see also women
Gerhart, U. 175, 179, 180
Germany
activation 116, 138
citizenship 89n
early retirement 207
gender equality 173, 178
inactivity rates 63, 64
life-long education 65
see also West Germany
Giddens, A. 6, 38, 78, 80, 158, 159, 160, 162, 184n, 243, 259
Gilbert, N. 1, 78, 80, 115, 151, 258
Ginn, J. 22
Glaser, K. 36
globalisation 37–40, 105, 179, 183, 258–9
and gender equality 171–2, 174
Glover, J. 100
Goodin, R. 20
Gordon, D. 27
Gough, I. 34
Goul Andersen, J. 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 209
Gould, R. 206, 207
governance 3, 8, 79, 105–7
Graversen, B. 142
Gray, R. 16
Great Britain see United Kingdom
Greece 62, 65
Guillemard, A.-M. 23, 28, 55, 56, 59, 69, 205, 236, 266
Guillemot, D. 131n
Guldager, J. 144
Gutman, R. 108
H
Haataja, A. 193
Habermas, J. 45, 95, 102, 106, 108
Hagen, K. 206
Hall, P.A. 3–4
Halleröd, B. 208
Halpern, S. 56
Halvorsen, K. 85, 136
Halvorsen, R. 8, 241, 244
Handler, J.F. 115, 151, 152
Hanesch, W. 138
Hansen, H. 145, 146
Hardt, M. 107
Harslof, I. 139, 144, 146
Hassenteufel, P. 116
Hawkins, K. 230
Heikkilä, M. 208
Heinz, W.R. 59, 61, 67
Held, D. 105, 107
Hemerijck, A. 4
Henriksen, L.S. 156
Herkommer, S. 84, 85
higher education 66
Hill, M. 15, 21
Hinrichs, K. 1, 4
Hobson, B. 169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 180, 183n
Hoff, J. 75, 261
Holden, L. 157
Holt Larsen, H. 164n
Holzmann, R. 18
Honneth, A. 47, 100
House of Commons Select Committee on Social Services 226
House of Lords Select Committee on Unemployment 226
household structure 36
human resource management (HRM) viii, 157–60
and contractural subjectivity 161–3
and new dispositif 160–1
Hvinden, B. 136, 138, 244
Hytti, H. 206, 207
I
IAP (individual action plan) viii, 5–6, 9, 143–4, 151–3, 264
and administrative citizenship 162–4
Danish experience 153–6
as system of regulation 156–60
identities 75, 76, 82–3, 87
(p.277) ILO (International Labour Organization) 15, 20, 27–8
immigration 2, 77, 179, 263
inequalities 24–5, 182–3
and globalisation 37–8
and taxation 21–3
insertion ix, 114, 117, 120, 124–9, 131n
Ireland 62
Italy
activation 116
flexible employment 62
inactivity rates 64
life-long education 65
J
Jackson, P. 229–30
Jahoda, H. 81
Jensen, P. 145
Jensen, P.H. 4, 5, 8, 84, 85, 152, 161, 206
Jensen, S.M. 143
Johnson, P. 228
Jorgensen, H. 115, 152
Jorgensen, S. 18
Joumard, I. 22
K
kairos 60
Kaldor, M. 107
Kangas, O. 4
Karni, E. 18
Kieselbach, T. 81
Kildal, N. 80, 151
Knijn, T. 2, 172, 176, 190, 192, 196
Kohli, M. 36, 55, 57
Koistinen, P. 196
Kolberg, J.E. 206
Korpi, W. 78, 79, 89n, 90n, 170, 172, 173, 175, 176, 181, 184n
Kosonen, P. 19
Kreimer, M. 194, 195, 198, 199
Kremer, M. 2, 176, 190, 192, 196
Kristensen, C.J. 143
Kuhnle, S. 80
Kvist, J. 22, 140, 151
Kymlicka, W. 100
L
Laczko, F. 206, 207, 225, 227, 228
Laeken Council 42, 50
Lahelma, E. 210
Lakin, C. 22
Langager, K. 143, 154
Larsen, C.A. 145
Larsen, F. 119, 142
Larsen, J.E. 143, 144, 152
Lave, J. 163
Le Grand, J. 22
Leira, A. 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 199, 200
Lemke, C. 101
Levitas, R. 85
Lewis, J. 172, 173, 174, 175, 180, 181, 183n, 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 197
Liebert, U. 104, 169, 171, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183n, 184n
life course 55–6, 259
blurring the ages of life 63–6
deinstitutionalisation and destandardisation 59–60
levelling age thresholds 66–7
reconfiguring welfare 68–71
tripartite organisation 58–9
and welfare policies 56–7
and work time 61–2
life-long education 63, 65, 66
Lind, J. 1
Lipsky, M. 152–3
Lisbon Council 38, 40, 41, 171
Lister, R. 4, 75, 76, 170, 180, 181, 200n
Littlewood, P. 84, 85
Lockwood, D. 45
Lodemel, I. 80, 131n, 137, 138
Loftager, J. 80
Luckmann, T. 93
Ludwig-Mayerhofer, W. 114, 115, 117, 118, 151
Luhmann, N. 159, 161
Lutz, H. 101
Luxembourg 62, 65
M
Maastricht Treaty 101–2, 103, 179, 180
McGoldrick, A. 225, 230–1
McGrew, A. 105
Macintyre, A. 99
Maddison, A. 61
Madsen, P.K. 139, 140
Magnusson, L. 101
Mahé, T. 119, 126
Mahon, R. 171, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183n, 196
male breadwinner model viii, 7, 173, 180
and care 199–200
and citizenship 189
Maltby, T. 2, 36
(p.278) Margalit, Avishai 99
marginalization viii, 2, 25–6, 98
and citizenship 83, 84
and early retirement 227–34, 235–6, 266
and human resource management society 161
and social policies 101–5
and taxation 21–3
and unemployment 205–6
and well-being 207–9
Marques-Pereira, B. 177, 178, 181
Marshall, T.H. 5, 76, 77, 83, 88, 95, 200n, 205, 270n
Martin, C. 194
Maruani, M. 199
Mathieson, T. 246
Maule, A.J. 228, 230
Mayer, K. U. 56
Mazur, A. 178
MEDEF (Mouvement des Enterprises de France) 121
media 252–3
men
inactivity rates 63, 64
life-long education 65
Menger, P.M. 68
Merton, R. 246, 249
Mik-Meyer, N. 144
Miller, D. 99
Mills, C. Wright 15, 26, 28
Mitchell, D. 258
Moller, I.H. 1, 115, 137, 138, 208
Moller Okin, S. 100
Moore, J. 16
Morel, S. 115
multiculturalism 96–101, 262–3
Murray, C. 78, 85
Mutran, E. 208
N
Naegele, G. 1
Negri, A. 107
Neidhard, F. 198
neoliberalism 1–2, 4–5, 37–40
Netherlands
activation 119, 138
flexible employment 62
gender equality 173, 181
inactivity rates 63, 64
life-long education 65, 66
social quality 45
new poverty 83, 84, 86
New Zealand 136
Nielsen, A. 143, 144
Nordenmark, M. 206
Nordic countries
childcare 196
early retirement 206–7, 266–7
early retirement and well-being 207–18
gender equality 173, 174, 178, 179, 184n
Norway
care 196, 198, 199, 200
citizenship 89n
early retirement 206–7
early retirement and well-being 10, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214–16, 217, 218n
social expenditure 39
social-movement organisations 243–55
Nussbaum, M. 100
O
obligations 5, 117
OECD 18, 19, 78
activation 113, 135, 137, 138, 151
early retirement 224
women's employment 191, 199
Offe, C. 241
older people 2, 10, 35–6
activation 124, 147
employment 234–5
Olesen, S.P. 151, 154
orientations 75, 76, 82–3, 87
Osterman, P. 71
Ostner, I. 172, 173, 176, 180, 181
Overbye, E. 207, 208, 219n
own role perceptions 6, 83, 152
P
Palme, J. 89n
PARE (plan d'aide au retour à l'emploi) viii, 120, 121–4, 129
Parekh, B. 100
Parker, S. 227, 228
participation 5–6, 75, 76, 81–2, 120, 163–4, 263
and gender equality 170
participation capacity 48
passive labour-market policies 18–19
path dependency ix
Paugam, S. 15, 81, 223, 263
(p.279) Peck, J. 136, 138
Pedersen, L. 139, 140
Pennacchi, L. 98
pensions 21–2, 57, 259
Percheron, A. 56
Petersson, O. 75, 82, 90n
Pfau-Effinger, B. 2, 3, 7, 8, 189, 190, 192, 193, 198, 199, 201n
Phillips, A. 24, 169
Piachaud, D. 227
Pierson, P. 3–4, 258, 268
Pixley, J. 205, 208
Plougmann, P. 223
Pogge, T. 101
policy closure ix, 4–5, 15–17
political citizenship 163
Pommier, P. 130n
Porta, D. della 242
Portugal 62, 64, 65
poverty ix, 83, 84, 85, 86
Power, S. 108
Prieur, A. 156
Pringle, K. 182
projet d'action personalisé (PAP) viii, 121, 122
Prouteau, L. 242
Puijk, R. 253
Putnam, R.D. 82
Q
quality 49
R
Rawls, J. 97, 98–9
Rein, M. 19, 28
Reizes, D.C. 208
retirement pensions 21–2, 57, 259
Reuter, S. 178
Rhodes, M. 1
Rieff, D. 108
rights 5, 75, 76, 79–80, 117, 120, 205
Riley, M. 55
Ritakallio, V.-M. 208
RMI (revenu minimum d'insertion) ix, 114, 117, 120, 124–9, 131n
Robertson, G. 108
Roche, M. 76, 85
Room, G.J. 44, 75, 76, 84, 85
Rosdahl, A. 139
Rosholm, M. 142
Rothstein, B. 78
Roussel, L. 66
Ryan, William 16
S
Sadar, N. 191
Sainsbury, D. 171, 172, 183n
Sainsbury, R. 16
Sandel, M.J. 99
Saraceno, C. 138, 174, 175, 176, 177
Saurama, L. 206, 208, 218, 219n
Scharpf, F.W. 1
Schiffbänker, H. 194, 195, 198, 199
Schlozman, K.L. 81
Schmid, G. 5, 115, 130n
Schmidt, V.A. 1, 18
Schnapper, D. 116
Schoepflin, U. 56
Schon, D. 19, 28
security 68–9
self-reliance 136
Sen, A. 82, 99
Sennett, R. 7, 158, 164n
Serrano Pascual, A. 115
Siim, B. 75, 170, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183n, 184n, 192, 194, 200n
Simonin, B. 121
Sinfield, A. 18, 20, 22
Sipilä, J. 190
Skjeie, H. 182
Slovenia 191
Smelser, N. 56
social citizenship 116–17, 162
social cohesion 44–5, 46, 47, 49
social conditions 75–6, 80–1
social empowerment see empowerment
social exclusion viii, 2
and citizenship 83, 84–5
EU policies 42–3
and human resource management society 161
social inclusion 2, 44, 46, 47, 49, 85–7
social investments 69
social-movement organisations 241, 242–55, 264–5
social policy agenda ix, 40–3
social protection 15–16, 113–15
EU and beyond 17–21
social quality ix, 43–50
social recognition 48
social responsiveness 48
social rights 76, 79–80, 87, 117, 200n, 259
and care 192, 196
(p.280) individualisation 262, 264
and welfare regimes 194
women 190
social risk management 18
socioeconomic security 44, 46, 47, 49
Solem, P.E. 207
Sophocles 94
Sorensen, T. 155
Spain
activation 119
flexible employment 62
inactivity rates 64
life-long education 65
Spencer, L.M. 157
Spencer, S.M. 157
Spinelli, A. 103
SSO ix, 144
Stöber-Blossey, S. 194
Stockholm school 78
Strath, B. 101
subjectivity 161–3
Sue, R. 57
Supiot, A. 68, 69, 70
Surrey, S.S. 22
Svedberg, L. 84
Sweden
care 177, 196
citizenship 89n
early retirement 10, 206, 207
flexible employment 62
gender equality 182
inactivity rates 63, 64
life-long education 65, 66
social expenditure 39
working mothers 199
T
Tanner, S. 228–9
taxation 21–3
Taylor, C. 100
Taylor, P. 227, 229–30, 236
Taylor-Gooby, P. 16
Theobald, H. 191
Therborn, G. 49
Théret, B. 114, 116, 117, 119
Third Way x
Titmuss, R. 20, 41
Tommiska, K. 191
Torfing, J. 115, 139, 140, 151
Townley, B. 159, 164n
Townsend, P. 23, 27
Transatlantic consensus x, 37–8, 50
Trickey, H. 80, 131n, 137, 138
Trinder, C. 225
Tuchszirer, C. 122, 124
Twine, F. 28
U
underclass 17, 77, 78, 83, 85
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) 99
unemployment 205–6
and citizenship 77–80, 82–3
effects of activation policy 142–3
Ungerson, C. 7, 192
United Kingdom
activation 113, 118, 119, 127–8, 136, 137
care 196
early exit and marginalisation 10, 223, 227–34, 235–6, 266, 267
early retirement 207, 223–7
flexible employment 62
gender equality 173–4, 175, 178, 180–1
inactivity rates 63, 64
inequality 24, 27
life-long education 65, 66
older workers 234–5
policy closure 16–17
tax benefits 21–2
welfare system reform 38–9
United States 34–5, 136
Urwin, P. 227
V
van Berkel, R. 115, 137, 138, 241
van der Maesen, L. 44
van Gunsteren, H. 55, 205
van Gunsteren, H.R. 75
van Kersbergen, C.J. 4
van Oorschot, W. 80, 140, 142, 151
Veit-Wilson, J. 15–16, 27
Verba, S. 81, 82, 90n
Vleminckx, K. 75, 84
Vobruba, G. 34–5
Voet, R. 170
von Nordheim, F. 234
W
Waerness, K. 200
Walker, A. 27, 36, 37, 44, 47, 49, 206, 207, 225, 227, 228
Walker, C. 37
Walker, R. 136
(p.281) Walters, W. 19, 25
Walzer, M. 99
Weise, H. 139, 143, 154
Weiss, L. 38
welfare
individualisation 259–60
and life course 68–71
welfare regimes x, 193–4, 223
carer and worker citizen model 194, 195–7
citizen worker and state as carer model 194
social mobilisation 241–55
social practices of care work 197–200
welfare state
analysis of change 3–6
challenges 35–7
changes 268–70
European social model 33–5
and gender equality 171–9, 183n
and life course 55–7, 58–9
restructuring 1–3, 257, 258–9
well-being, and early retirement 207–18
Wenger, E. 163
West Germany 62
Westergaard, J. 232
Wilkinson, R. 24
Williams, F. 241
women
activation 124, 127, 128
and care 190–1, 192–3
citizenship 9–10, 76, 190
life-long education 65
marginalisation 22
and multiculturalism 100
roles 36
Wood, S. 115
work time 61–2
workfare x, 80, 115, 131n, 136, 137
World Bank 18, 22, 51
Y
Yeates, N. 38
Young, I. 100
young people 128