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Ethics of CareCritical advances in international perspective$

Tula Brannelly, Lizzie Ward, and Nicki Ward

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9781447316510

Published to Policy Press Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781447316510.001.0001

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(p.279) Index

(p.279) Index

Source:
Ethics of Care
Publisher:
Policy Press
A
abuse 13–14, 199, 229
active ageing
concept of 125, 128–31
and day centres 131–8
and self-care 53–4
and telecare 111–22
activity centres 125–6, 131–8
advocacy initiatives 161
ageing population 16, 17 see also active ageing; elder care
Agosta, L. 100
AIDS care
care as power 144–7
care as practice 142–4, 148–9
and erosion of public sector 140–1
and gender imbalance 140–1, 143–4
and intergenerational dependency 144
matriarchy of care 141, 147–9
men’s role 140, 143–4, 145
prevalence of disease 139–40, 142
and reconfiguration of living arrangements 145–7
research project 141–2
and social capital 143
women’s role 140–1, 143–9 see also HIV care
Akintola, O. 140, 143
Ally, S. 88
Anthias, F. 64
Arnfred, S. 147
Aronson, J. 199
Asante, M.K. 84
Ash, A. 13, 199
asylum seekers 7
Atim, A. 152, 160, 161
attentiveness (caring about) 38, 97, 169–71, 173, 177, 191–2, 224–6, 230
austerity measures 9, 45–6, 56
Australia 71
AWLAE project 142
B
backgrounding 86
Baggini, J. 8
Bailey, A. 91, 92
Bargh, M. 80–1
Barnes, M. 10, 64, 77, 78, 203, 223, 238–9
Barnett, T. 139–40
Bauman, Z. 199
Beckmann, N. 161
Bella, L. 50
Boler, M. 94
Bondi, L. 153
Borell, B.A.E. 78
Boulton, A. 41
Bowden, P. 13
Brannelly, T. 41
Budlender, D. 140, 144, 145
Bujra, J 161
burden discourse 17, 54, 156
C
Canada 71, 239
capacity to care 32, 43
care/care ethics (concept/theory of)
barriers and challenges 234–6
caring democracies 21–30
crisis of and for 12–17
and dependency 85
developments in 33–5
and dialogue 238–40
and elder care 111–13, 131, 133, 137–8
and empathy 95–9, 104–6
and global care 21–30
and identity 58–63
and indigenous cultures 69–70, 77–82
and interdependence 152–4
and international development 95–9
and intersectionality 57–68
and justice 5–7, 11–12
multidimensionality of 31–43
and neoliberalism 7–11, 54–6
personal and political 4–6
phases of 12, 27, 40, 127, 135, 142–4, 148, 169, 224
and poststructuralism 57–68
as power 144–7
as practice 142–4, 148–9
and privileged irresponsibility 77–8, 83–94, 236
and recognition 126–8
and renewal 238–42
and self-care 46–7, 54–6
(p.280) and virtue 12, 99, 235, 236 see also relationships of care
care deficit 5, 6, 16, 21, 28, 217
care givers see carers
care imbalance 21–2, 23
care receivers
and care imbalance 21–2
and care as practice 144
as carers 157–63
and conceptualisation of care 14, 15
and dialogue 238–40
and HIV care 151–64
and injustice 41
and intersections of identity 63–8
and intimacy 39–40
learning from 47, 49
and Māori culture 74–5
and medical migration 208–9
and mental health services 228
and networks and collectives 35–7
and people with intellectual disabilities 166–77, 189, 190–2
and physical restraint 200–4
and policy-making 239
position/role of 32, 33
and power 144–8
and presence/distance 38
and privileged irresponsibility 85–7
and recognition 127–8
and responsiveness 15, 99, 159, 174–6, 192, 228, 230
and telecare 111–22
and vulnerability 102 see also carers; relationships of care; self-care
carers
children as 151–2, 154–6, 157
and dyadic process 15, 33, 46–7
dynamic role of 33
and elder care 127–8, 132–7
and empathy 95–106
and HIV care 151–64
and intersections of identity 63–8
and intimacy 39–40
and Māori culture 71–7
migrant doctors 207–18
and networks and collectives 35–7
and power 144–8
people with intellectual disabilities as 165–77
and physical presence 38–9
and recognition 127–8
support for 35–6, 159–60, 170, 174, 176, 207–18
and telecare 114–22
and time 40–2
unpaid 10–11
and use of physical restraint 200–4 see also care receivers; relationships of care; self-care; women
carers with intellectual disabilities
and attentiveness 169–71, 177
and competence 173–4, 175
and moral maturity 176–7
mutuality and reciprocity 166–9, 172, 175, 177
and public policy 165–6
recognition of role 170–1, 173, 175–6, 177
research project 166
and responsibility 171–3, 175
and responsiveness 174–6
Carers UK 10–11
caring democracies 21–30
caring relationships see relationships of care
caringscapes 96
cash-for-care schemes 9–10
Chambers, R. 102, 106
children
as carers 151–2, 154–6, 157
and hearth-holds 146
and International Child Development Programme 102–4
mother-child relationship 32, 146, 147, 154–6
and peer support 157
and use of physical restraint 195–205
Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (UK) 52–3
Church, K. 239
civil society 23
collective care 35, 37, 47
collective responsibility 10, 36, 46, 50
colonised societies 11, 69–82, 84, 87–8
communitarianism 8–9, 235
competence 173–4, 226–7, 230
Connell, R. 141
Copenhagen City Council 131
Corby, B. 196
cost containment 23–4
Crenshaw, K. 57
Crozier, G.K.D. 25
customers, older people as 132–4
D
Dahl, H.M. 128, 129
Danish elder care
active ageing 129–30
assessment of 132
changing views on 128–31
customers or members 132–4
in day centres 125–6, 131–8
organisation of 128
(p.281) Davidson, J. 197
Davies, W. 9
Davis, M. 101
day care centres 125–6, 131–8
De Beauvoir, S. 57
dementia, and telecare 111–22
democratic caring 21–30
Denmark see Danish elder care
deontology 98, 99
development ethics 95–106
dialogue, importance of 238–40
direct payments 49
disabilities, people with
as carers 165–77
disability rights movement 14–15, 49, 50
and moral philosophy 236–7
and notions of care 14, 152–3, 179–80
and photographic representation of 179–93
doctors, migrant 207–18
domestic workers 29, 88–90
doulia 36
Du Preez, C.J. 140, 141, 142–4, 145, 147
dualism 85–7
Durie, M. 75
E
Ehn, B. 141, 149
Elder, G. 88
elder care
and active ageing 53–4, 125, 128–38
ageing population 16, 17
appropriateness of services 134–5
changing views on 128–9
customers or members 132–4
and day centres 125–6, 131–8
in Denmark 125–38
normal ageing 129, 130
and recognition 127–8
and self-care 53–4
successful ageing 129
and telecare 111–22
third and fourth age 128–9
empathy
in action 101–4
and immersions 101–2
and International Child Development Programme 95, 102–4, 105
at intersections of care 97–100
as intersubjective process 100–1, 105
and peer support 159
process model 101
empowerment 49–52, 153
Engster, D. 7, 39, 168, 175
Equity and Excellence: Liberating the NHS 50
Esquith, S. 84–5
Evans, R. 151
evidence-based work 132, 135–6
Expert Patients Programme (UK) 52–3
F
feed-back loop 28
financial crisis 8–9, 23–4, 56
Fine, M. 153
Fisher, B. 26, 27, 31
Foucault, M. 93
fourth age of ageing 128–9, 131, 137–8
Francis Inquiry 13
Frankenberg, R. 84
Fraser, N. 242
Frederici municipality, Denmark 130
G
Gasper, D. 96
gender imbalance
and AIDS care 140–1, 143–4
and HIV care 160, 161, 162, 163
gender traitors 92–3
gerontology 128–9
Gilligan, C. 3, 5, 62, 176, 211–12
Glendinning, C. 153
global care 6–8, 11
and care imbalances 21–2, 23
and care labour market 24–6
and caring democracies 26–30
and nation states 23–4, 28–9
organisation of 23–6
global economic crisis 8–9, 23–4, 56
Goodman, M.K. 96
Goulet, D. 106
GPS-based tracking 114–21
Green, R.M. 191, 192, 193
H
Hage, G. 29
Hall, S. 63
Halwani, R. 12
Hankivsky, O. 58, 62–3, 64
Harrison, G. 105
Hasmanová Marhánková, J. 54
Health and Care Professions Council (UK) 67
health and social care professionals
and care as a value and practice 12–13
and carers with intellectual disabilities 170–1, 174
and elder care 131–8
and market mechanisms 216–18
migrant doctors 207–18
and self-care 48–53, 55
and telecare 117–18, 119–20
and use of physical restraint 199, 200–4 see also carers; relationships of care
health promotion 50, 53–4
(p.282) Hekman, S.J. 234
Held, V. 22–3, 99, 203
Henare, M. 75
Higgs, P. 130
HIV/AIDS see AIDS care; HIV care
HIV care
and advocacy initiatives 161
challenges to 161–2
and gender imbalance 160, 161, 162, 163
global governance of 161–2
interdependency within families 151, 154–6, 162–3
mothers with HIV 154–6
and neoliberalism 159, 163
and peer support 156–63
research project 151–2
role of children 154–6
role of men 160 see also AIDS care
Hollway, W. 32
homogenisation 58, 60, 87, 88
Honneth, A. 126, 127, 128
hooks, b. 58
Human Capabilities Approach 95
human development, and empathy 95, 100–1
human-security approach 22, 96
Hume, D. 98–9
I
identity
active dimension of 65–6
and care ethics 58–63, 240
as carer and cared for 63–7
and intersectionality and
poststructuralism 57–8, 60–8
and migrant doctors 214, 215
and social policy 66
and telecare 115, 119
IDS (Institute for Development Studies) 101
immersions 101–2, 104
incorporation 86
indigenous people
and colonisation 69–70
core values of 71–7
definition of 70
and interdependence 81–2
and justice 78–9
and markets 79–81
and neoliberalism 79–81
and privileged irresponsibility 77–8
instrumentalism 86–7, 89
integrity of care principles 12, 230
intellectual disabilities and care
and nature of care 180
and notion of care 188–90
and pathologisation 183–5
and perceptions of 180, 182, 190, 192
photographic representation of 180–93, 238
re-imagining care 186–90, 191–2
research project 180–2
interdependency 15–16
and carers with intellectual disabilities 166–72
and elder care 126–8, 137–8
in families 154–6
and HIV care 152–64
and indigenous cultures 72, 81–2
and migrant care workers 7–8, 208–10
and multidimensionality of care 31–43
and telecare 112, 115
theories of 152–4 see also relationships of care
International Child Development Programme 97, 102–4, 105
International Domestic Workers’ Network 29
International Labour Organisation 29
intersectionality 57–68
intersubjectivity, and empathy 100–1
intimacy 39–40, 211–12
J
justice
and democracy 36
and disability movement 13–14
and empathy 97–8
and global care 6–7
and Human Capabilities Approach 95
and indigenous cultures 69–70, 77–80
and market discourse 10–11
and mental health service users 219–32
and past injustices 41, 70, 77–80
and recognition 126–7
relationship with care 5–6, 11–12
and renewal and virtue 11–12
and solidarity 241–2
K
Kahn, R.L. 129
kaitiakitanga (guardianship) 75–7
Kant, I. 98–9
Kawharu, M. 76–7
Kendall, E. 48, 53
kinship (Māori) 73–4
Kittay, E.F. 13, 16, 32, 33, 35, 36, 148, 153, 163, 236–7
Koggel, C.M. 4, 28
KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 140, 142–4, 145, 147 (p.283)
L
Laslett, P. 128–9
Levitas, R. 55
Lloyd, L. 7–8, 17, 54
Löfgren, O. 141, 149
long-term health conditions 52–3
M
Mackay, F. 38
Mahon, R. 6–7
manaakitanga (care) 74–5
managerialism 196–7, 199, 201–2
Māori people
and colonisation 71, 72–3
and concept of care 74–5
core values of 71–7, 80–1
and decolonisation 72–3
and justice 78
and neoliberalism 78, 80–1
physical and spiritual world 71–2
pre-colonisation 71
and privileged irresponsibility 77, 78
resistance of 80–1
and Treaty of Waitangi 70–1, 73, 80
tribal nature of 71
Marcia, J. 100
markets
and care ethics 7–11
global markets 24–6
and healthcare 216–18
and indigenous cultures 79–81
and self-care 54–6
Massey, D. 54
matriarchy of care 139–49
McEwan, C. 96
McNatty, W. 73, 74
medical migrants
and care relationships 208–10
and cultural issues 212–13
and interdependence 208–10
and market mechanisms 216–18
negative public image of 216
and personal vulnerability 214–15
problems of 207–8
and professional vulnerability 211–14
reasons for migration 208, 209–10
research project 207–8
and socio-cultural vulnerability 215–16
mental health legislation 220–2, 232
mental health service users
and attentiveness 224–6, 230
and competence 226–7, 230
complex lives of 230–1
and compulsory detention 220–3, 229–30, 232
and dependency 231
and dialogue 239
and inequality 219–20, 222, 230–1
and justice 222, 228–32
and protection 222–3, 224
research project 223–4
and responsibility 226
and responsiveness 228, 230
and scrutiny 222
and solidarity 228–31
migrant care workers 6–7, 7–8, 16, 21, 24–5, 28–9
migrant doctors 207–18
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 95–6
Minhinnick, N. 76
Morrell, M. 100, 101
Morris, J. 49
Moser, I. 17
mother-child relationship 32, 146, 147, 154–6
multidimensionality of care 31–43
mutuality 8–9
and carers with intellectual disabilities 166–9, 172, 174, 175, 176–7
and peer support for HIV carers 156–63
self-help groups 47–52 see also interdependency
N
narrative ethics of care 12
nation-states as care containers 23–4, 26, 28–9
National Service Framework for Older People (UK) 53
neoliberalism 7–11, 24–5, 125–6
and indigenous cultures 78, 79–81
refusal of 54–6
and responsibility for care 7–11, 159
and self-care 45–56
networked care 35–6, 173
New Labour (UK) 50
New Public Management 128
New Zealand
indigenous cultures 69–82
mental health services 221–2, 223
NHS, and self-care 49–52
Niehof, A. 141–4, 145, 235
Noddings, N. 32, 97
Nombo, C.I. 142, 145–6
‘normal ageing’ 129, 130
Nussbaum, M. 148 (p.284)
O
O’Carroll, A.D. 73
Omolade, B. 88
Orme, J. 4
Our Bodies Ourselves 47–8
P
Paradza, G.G. 142, 146
past injustices 41, 70, 77–80
Peacock, D. 140
Pease, B. 87, 94
Pedwell, C. 102
peer support 156–63
people living with HIV (PLHA) see HIV care
personal experiences 236–8
personal responsibility 49–50
personalisation of care 10
Phillips, A. 48
photographic representation of disability 179–93, 238
physical presence and care 38–9
physical restraint, use of
acceptability of 200
alternatives to 197–8
and care ethics 198–204
context of 196–8
definition of 197
effects of 197–8
experiences of 200–4
justification for 200–1
research project 195, 200–2
and rights-based discourse 199
and violence 203–4
PLHA (people living with HIV) see HIV care
Plumwood, V. 85–7
Pollak, S. 211–12
Pols, J. 17
poststructuralism 57, 58, 60–7
power
and AIDS carers 144–8
empowerment 49–52, 153
and identity 59, 60, 63
and interdependence 153–4
and intersectionality 60, 63
and people with intellectual disabilities 182, 190
and privileged irresponsibility 6, 77–8, 83–5
and self-care 47–52
and use of physical restraint 203
privilege
definition of 83–4
and dualism 85–7
privileged irresponsibility in care provision 89–91
and colonisation 77–8, 87–8
concept of 6, 77, 85
definition of privilege 83–4
and dualism 85–7
and gender 90–1, 92–3
and indigenous cultures 77–8
and renewal 236
resistance to 91–4
and social connection model 93–4
in South Africa 85–91
protection 6, 189, 220, 222–3, 224
public health 50, 53–4
Pulcini, E. 41, 42
Q
queer communities 63–4
R
radical exclusion 86
Rakusen, J. 48
reciprocity 16, 33
and carers with intellectual disabilities 166–9, 176–7
and collective care 35, 37
and indigenous cultures 75
and telecare 115 see also interdependency
recognition 126–8, 131, 138
Reik, T. 100
relational autonomy 112, 153, 160, 163
relational ontology 3–4
relationships of care 14–16
and attentiveness 38, 97, 169–71, 173, 177, 191–2, 224–6, 230
and caring democracy 28
children as carers 151–2, 154–6, 157
and competence 173–4, 226–7, 230
in day care centres 125–6, 131–8
and dialogue 238–40
and documentation 135–6
and empathy 99, 102–6, 153
fluidity of 33
and gender imbalance 140–1, 143–4, 160, 161, 162, 163
at global level 22–3
and identity 59, 65–8
and International Child Development
Programme 96, 103–5
and intimacy 39–40
and Māori culture 73–5
and men’s role 140, 143–4, 145, 160
and medical migrants 208–9
mother-child relationship 32, 147, 154–6
multidimensionality of 33–5
and networks and collectives 35–7
and peer support 156–63
(p.285) and people with intellectual disabilities 166–77
and power 32, 33, 37, 144–8, 153
and presence/distance 38–9
and privileged irresponsibility 77–8, 83–94, 236
reciprocity and mutuality 37, 166–9
and recognition 127–8
and responsiveness 15, 99, 159, 174–6, 192, 228, 230
and self-care 46–7, 56
and siblings’ role 152, 154, 155, 156, 157
and telecare 112, 114–15
temporal dimension of 40–2
and use of physical restraint 199, 200, 201, 203–4 see also care receivers; carers; interdependency; responsibility; women
residential childcare 195–205
responsibility
and carers with intellectual disabilities 171–3
concept of 84–5, 235–6
and democracy 4–5, 26–30
and elder care 130–1, 136–7
and empathy 105–6
for the future 41–2
at global level 7, 21–30
and interdependency 154–6
and Māori culture 73–4, 75, 76, 77–81
and matriarchy of care 148–9
and medical migrants 210–11, 216–17
and mental health service users 226, 230–1
and neoliberalism 7–11, 159
and networks and collectives 35–7
and people with intellectual disabilities 191, 92
and personalisation of care 10
and self-care 45–56
social connection model of 93–4
and South Africa 83–94
responsiveness (care receiving) 15, 99, 159, 174–6, 192, 228, 230
Ritchie, J.E. 73
Roa, T. 73, 74–5
Robinson, F. 6–7, 22, 59, 171
Rogers, A. 48, 53
Romania, medical migration from 207–18
Rowe, J.W. 129
S
salutogenic theory 132
Sarkar, S. 158
Save our NHS 51
Sayer, A. 4
Scotland, use of physical restraint 195–205
self-care
and active ageing 53–4, 128–31
and care ethics perspective 46–7, 54–6
and chronic health conditions 52–3
concept of 45–7
and feminist campaigns 47–8
and health professionals 48–53, 55
and neoliberalism 46–52
in relations to others 55–6
and self-help 47–52
and telecare 112
Self-Care - A Real Choice 50–1
Self Care Forum 51
Self Care Support 51
self-determination, and ageing 128–31
self-help 47–52
Sen, A.K. 95
‘Sense of Coherence’ 132
service users
as activists 223–4
as carers 157–63
cash-for-care schemes 9–10
and conceptualisation of care 14, 15
and dialogue 238–40
and HIV care 151–64
and injustice 41
and intersections of identity 63–8
and intimacy 39–40
learning from 47, 49
and Māori culture 74–5
and medical migration 208–9
and mental health services 228
and networks and collectives 35–7
and people with intellectual disabilities 166–77, 189, 190–2
and physical restraint 200–4
and policy-making 239
position/role of 32, 33
and power 144–8
and presence/distance 38
and privileged irresponsibility 85–7
and recognition 127–8
and responsiveness 15, 99, 159, 174–6, 192, 228, 230
and telecare 111–22
Sevenhuijsen, S. 5, 27, 34, 46, 63, 217
Sherr, L. 103
(p.286) Sholock, A. 94
siblings and care 152, 154, 155, 156, 157
Skelton, D.F. 102
Slote, M. 97–9, 104–5
Smith, K. 199
Smith, M. 199
social capital 143
solidarity 28, 29, 127, 131, 228–31, 241
South Africa and AIDS care 140, 142–4, 145, 147
and privilege and responsibility 85–94
Spiller, C. 75
Stafford Hospital, England 13
Steckley, L. 199
successful ageing 129–31
Swigonski, M.E. 84
T
telecare
and balancing values and ideals 118–21
and care collective 122
and care ethics 111–13
demands and responsibilities of 116–17, 121, 122
and empirical research 113
GPS-based tracking 114–21
home use of 114–17
and institutional care 117–18, 119–20
as network replacement 121–2
and new skills and routines 117–18
as a new solution 121–2
and risk 118–20
temporal dimension of care 40–2
third age of ageing 128–9, 130
Thomas, C. 191
Thorvaldsdottir, T. 64
tikanga 71
Treaty of Waitangi 70–1, 73, 80, 82
Tronto, J.
and accounts of care 139
care as species activity 176–7
and care phases 12, 27, 40, 127, 135, 142–4, 148, 169, 224
and caring democracy 4–5, 21–30, 36, 163–4
and definition of care 31, 45
and dependency 231
and feminist approach 62
and inequality 78, 219–20
and justice 5–6, 11, 77, 79, 231
and markets 10, 11, 16, 79, 80, 216–18
and moral boundaries 82
morally good people 168
and neoliberalism 79, 80
and pluralism 68
and privileged irresponsibility 6, 77, 78, 85, 86
and protection 222
and relationships 59
and responsibility 81
and women caregivers 139
Truong, T.D. 96
trust 28, 199, 201, 212, 213
Tuaupiki, J.T. 74–5
U
United Kingdom
and active ageing 53–4
carers 10–11, 36, 65, 67, 170
carers with intellectual disabilities 167, 168
medical migrants in 207–18
mental health services 219–32
personalisation of care 9–10
physical restraint (in Scotland) 195–205
and self-care 46, 48–54, 56
welfare state 45–6, 56
United Nations
and indigenous cultures 70, 79
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 95–6
unpaid carers 10–11
user groups 47–52
V
virtue ethics 12, 99, 235, 236
Visvanathan, S. 11
vulnerability 33, 42, 102, 106
and intellectual disabilities 165–6, 168, 170, 175–6, 182–5, 190, 192
and medical migrants 208, 210–16
W
Walker, M.U. 4, 85, 236, 239
Ward, N.J. 61
Weedon, C. 60
welfare systems, restructuring of 45–6, 49–50, 56
Weston, M. 140
Wetherell, M. 59
whakapapa (genealogy) 71, 72, 74
whanaungatanga (kinship) 73–4
Whangapirita, L. 76
Wiggins, D. 98
Williams, F. 15, 16, 60, 179, 234
Wilson, J. 95–6
Wilson, P. 52
women
and AIDS care 139–49
and HIV care 154–63
and intersectionality 57–8
(p.287) mother-child relationship 32, 146, 147, 154–6
as natural caregivers 139, 143–4
and self-help 47–8
World Health Organization Alma Ata Declaration 50
Y
Young, I.M. 85, 93–4, 242
Yuval Davies, N. 58, 60, 65, 66
Z
Zembylas, M. 94
Zimbabwe 142, 146, 148